3GL   4GL   5GL   .

, , - . 26 26 (A : Z, a : z), 9 (. , : ! " ; ? ( ) ), , 10 , 5 (+,-,*, /, ^) (, %, _, #, $, &, >, <, |, \) - 100 . , 7- ( 0 1111111, - 0 127).

7- ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange), 1963 . American Standards Association (ASA), ANSI (American National Standards Institute, http://www.ansi.org/, ANSI). 32 ( 0 31), , 95 ( 33 127) , , 1.1. 1.1 ( - ):

32 . ASCII :

. 8- , 128 ( 128 255).

8- ASCII - ISO/IEC 8859, 128 , 7- , 128 255 . :

1.2 ( 128-255) ISO 8859-5.
1.2. ISO 8859-5( 12810 25510)
7- -7 ( - 1.3), , ().

1.3. -7
< >, <> - 8- , , ( 128 255 - 1.4).

1.4. <>
MS DOS " " ( 128-255 1.5). ( ). , 14 . IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority - , Internet) IBM866 CP866.


1.5. DOS Cyrillic (CP866)
Microsoft Windows ASCII < > (code page, CP). 1.1.

1.1. (CP) Microsoft Windows

ANSI CP Mac CP DOS Primary CP(OEM) DOS Secondary CP(OEM) CPs
English (United States) 1252 10000 437 850  
English (Britain, Canada .) 1252 10000 850 437  
French (Standard) 1252 10000 850 437  
French (Canada) 1252 10000 850 863 437
German (Standard) 1252 10000 850 437  
Russian 1251 10007 866 855  

Microsoft Windows - CP1251 - 1.6.
1.6. CP1251
Linux -8R ( 1.7), IANA KOI8-R (http://koi8.pp.ru/).


1.7. KOI8-R
-8 - KOI8-U ( 1.8), KOI8-R .
1.8. KOI8-U
Macintosh ( Apple), CP10007, CP1251. IANA, x-mac-cyrillic ( 1.9).


1.9. Macintosh Cyrillic, CP10007 (charset = x-mac-cyrillic)
1991 Unicode Consortium, (Borland, IBM, Lotus, Microsoft, Novell, Sun, WordPerfect .), . Unicode . Microsoft Windows NT Windows 2000, 2003, XP Unicode, UTF-16, . UNIX- Linux, BSD Mac OS X Unicode (UTF-8), . Unicode 1114112 (220+216) , 96000 . 256 ISO 8859-1, 8- < >; , 128 ASCII. Unicode 17 (), 65536 (= 216) . ( 0), (BMP - Basic Multilingual Plane) - , . BMP , . <> . 1, (SMP - Supplementary Multilingual Plane ) , . 2, Supplementary Ideographic Plane (SIP), 40000 . 15 16 . 1.10 Unicode (U+0400 to U+04FF).

1.10. Unicode
, , Unicode - , Unicode , UTF (Unicode Transformation Format): 7- UTF-7 ( - RFC2152, 1997 ., IANA UTF-7) 8- UTF-8 (RFC2279, 1998 ., IANA UTF-8). - , Unicode, , ISO 8859-5 KOI8-R. , <>, < >- . UTF-8 . 128dec , , 7 128 7- ASCII (. 1.2), 1920 - (Greek, Cyrillic, Coptic, Armenian, Hebrew Arabic ). .
1.2. UTF-8

UTF-8 Notes
(binary)  
(hexadecimal)    
000000 - 00007F 0xxxxxxx 0, 7 ASCII
000080 - 0007FF 110xxxxx 10xxxxxx 3 110 - 2 , 10
000800 - 00FFFF 1110xxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 4 1110 - 3 , 10
010000 - 10FFFF 11110xxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 10xxxxxx 5 11110 - 4 , , 10

7-, - , , primerno takim obrazom. 1997 . Microsoft "", 128 (0x80) 136 (0x88) CP1251.

, -- :

            3GL   4GL     DB-


, - , , .




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