: (npn, pnp) .
, . 1:

. 1. : - ; - ; -

 ) , . . ( );

) , . . ( );

) ( ).

, .

. 2. : ) ; ) ; )

, -n-, : - ( ), , A, () ; - (- ).

R. -. R = R.

, I, I I, I= I + I.

, . R = R << r, r  -  , .

, h-, , , . : () i h21;

= i * u =

, R - h11;

 

R - = r || R R, r >> R;

R -  || R R,

Dh11 = h11* h22 h21 * h12.

( r, r, r, a , b ) R =   = R << r.

, h-, :

 

                                                                              1.

i

a 0,9 -0,995

b = 8 - 200

g = 1 + b

u

aR /R -          -

bR/R - =          = -

U/U < 1i*u i

p

iu u

iu             ( )

r+(1+b)* (r + R)

R -

r+(1a)r

r+(1+b)r (0.5¸10)

( - )

R -

(r + r)[1- ar /

/(r + r + R)] || || R R

r || R R

r (1- a)[1 + br / /(r + r + R)] || || R R

rd || R R

 

R - R

180

 . n--n, , .

,

 i < 1; Ku u >> 1; R < R < R ;

 u < u >> u < 1; (R ³ R ³ R ) R.

, , , , , .


, 1974 - 1980 . , , , , 360±30 /, - . , "Deutsche Physik", . FAQ .


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