, ,

, , , , . , , - , .

p-n . p-n-p n-p-n ( ). . .

. 4.

, . p-n-p, n- , . p- . , - . p-n- , .

, 2 - , , .

. 5.

., n-, - n. ( : -, -, -; , , --, --, .)

, . : , , - , - , , ( ) . , .. - , L, . . . . ( 20-50 . , , , , .. 0,5 ). 1 .

, - , , - , . , - , , : , - , , - . . : .

. 6.

-- . . 6:

( ) . , . , ( ) , . , . - , . , - . , , :

n0 - ( ), .

. .

, . , , , ( ). , . , , 10...1000 L. , ., , .

, . , , , . , , , ( ).

. ( ), , (, -- ). , , .

, , : ( ), (, ) (, ). , - , . , :

I >>I , , .. . b 10 300, ( ) b ( 2...5), , 5 000...10 000 .

, , , :

b a = I/I :

:

, a , a <1.

, , : , , b b+1 .

. ?

, - , . 0,6...0,7 . , 0,1 .

, , , ( - ). , I, , , , .

, E, 5...15 , . E=10 ,

n-p-n , , : p-n-p , n-p-n

p-n-p n-p-n : (), (), (). , . , - , .

, , : .

. 7.

.) ; ) ; ) . , , U, U , U, U, U , , , i,i,i- , , E1, 2 , 1, 2, , , .


, 100 300 . / 100 7 / 50 .


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