3GL   4GL   5GL   .

- ++

iostream

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++
#include <stdio.h>
int i;
char buff[80];
printf (" :");
scanf("%d", &i);
printf (" :");
gets (buff);
printf (" : %d\n : %s\n", i, buff);
#include <iostream.h>
int i;
char buff[80];
cout << " :";
cin >> i >> buff;
cout << " :" << i << "\n" << " :" << buff << "\n";

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: 12
: My string

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(((((cout<<"  :")<<i)<<"\n   :")<< buff)<<"\n");

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cin
cerr .

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cout << i

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,

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operator (ostream &, int) cout i cout
operator (ostream &, char*) cout "\n   :" cout
operator (ostream &, char*) cout buff cout
operator (ostream &, char*) cout "\n" cout

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cin >> i >> buff;

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,

ostream& operator << (ostream& stream, _& obj)
{
stream << ... // obj
// stream,
return stream;
}

istream& operator << (istream& stream, _& obj)
{
stream >> ... // obj
// stream,
return stream;
}

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cout << " "; out.operator << (" "); //

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class _3d
{
  double x, y, z;
 public:
  _3d ();
  _3d (double initX, double initY, double initZ);
  double mod () {return sqrt (x*x + y*y +z*z);}
  double projection (_3d r) {return (x*r.x + y*r.y + z*r.z) / mod();}
  _3d& operator + (_3d& b);
  _3d& operator = (_3d& b);
  friend ostream& operator << (ostream& stream, _3d& obj);
  friend istream& operator >> (istream& stream, _3d& obj);
};

ostream& operator << (ostream& stream, _3d& obj)
{
 stream << "x=" << obj.x<< "y=" << obj.y << "z=" << obj.z;
 return stream;
}

istream& operator << (istream& stream, _3d& obj)
{
 stream >> obj.x >> obj.y >> obj.z;
 return stream;
}

main()
{
 _3d vecA;
 cin >> vecA;
 cout << "My vector: " << vecA << "\n";
}

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iostream

, . iostream ios istream ostream. 25 , . .

int good () 1,
int eof () 1, " "
int fail () 1, - (, )
int bad () 1, -
int clear () -
int precision (int i)
int width (int i)

, .

#include <iostream.h>
int i;
char buff[80];
do{
 if (cin.fail()) cin.clear(); //
 cout << " :";
 cin >> i;
 if (cin.fail())
 {
  cout << " ";
  continue;
 }
 cin >> buff;
 if (cin.fail())
 {
  cout << " ";
  continue;
 }
} while (cin.fail()&&!cin.bad());
if (!cin.bad())
{
 cout << " :" << i << "\n"
 << " :" << buff << "\n";
}

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cin.width(sizeof(buff));
cin >> buff;

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cin, width():

cin.width(sizeof(buff));
cin >> buff;

, setw(),

cin >> setw (sizeof (buff)) >> buff;

-: . iostream()

i/o
dec o 10-,
oct o 8-
hex o 16-
ws i
ends o
endl o
setfill (int ch) o -
setprecision(int n) o ( )
setbase (int b) o
setbase (int b) o
setiosflags (int f) i/o
resetiosflags (int f) i/o

left
right
dec, oct, hex -
showbase
showpoint
uppercase 16-
showpos "+"
scientific
fixed

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ios& manipul (ios&);

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:

ostream & right(ostream &)
{
 s << resetiosflags(ios::left) << setiosflags(ios::right);
 return s;
}

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,
cout << setw(20) << right<< 1234 << endl;
. setw(20) 20 , right , , endl .

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iostream , : , . , , iostream,- .

- .

filebuf, ostream .

filebuf mybuff; //
// output
mybuff.open("output", ios::out);
ostream mycout(&mybuff); //
mycout <<12<<ends;
mybuff.close();

-. -,

ifstream ,
ofstream ,
fstream .

,

int i;
// , // input
ifstream mycout("input");
mycin >> i;

, fstream.h.

, strstrea.h.

, , .

char mybuff[128];
ostrstream mycout (mybuff, sizeof(mybuff));
mycout << 123 << ends;

mybuff "123".

,

int i;
char mybuff[128]= "123";
istrstream mycin (mybuff, sizeof(mybuff));
mycin >> i;

i 123.

, .

        3GL   4GL   5GL   .

, , Component diagram - - , . , .




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