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© Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, July 28, 2004
Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The results of author's study permitting set up to arrange physical concepts of planetary processes. It is shown that the form of planetary systems and galaxies is determined by process of interaction of the phase Aether with the substance, and the parameters of planetary orbits are completely determined by the velocity of the phase Aether blowing a planetary system. The derivation of steady orbits of planets and its satellites for any planetary system is given. The experimental confirmations of the ethereal concept are adduced.

"I will rescue him; I will protect him, for he acknowledges My name"
[Psalm 90/91]

The following model assumes the existence of a quasiisotropic, unified, practically incompressible and elastic aethereal medium [1, 4] throughout the Universe, which constitutes the fundamental substance. It is the carrier of all energy, and the medium of all processes happening in the Universe. The model is based on the notions developed by the author [2-12], which present the aether as a bicomponent domain environment — those components being corpuscular and phase. We will analyse consider processes generated by flows of the phase Aether - aethereal wind.

Real and Gedanken Physics

"Who is this that darkens my counsel with words without sense?"

[Job. 38,2]

230 years prior to origin SRT in 1676 the Danish astronomer Ole Chistensen Römer has measured the speed of light and fact of its difference for convergence and divergence of planets appropriate to the Galilean law of velocity addition by on shading of Jupiter satellites [13]. From the moment of this discovery the attempt of talk about such pseudo-theory as SRT should be considered as unscientific, contradicting to the facts.

Half-century after, in 1728 the English astronomer James Bradley, outgoing from the observations of stellar aberration, has measured not only the speed of light, but also its dependence to the same Galilean law of velocity addition [14]. That the given phenomenon can not be explained by SRT without of logic twist, in any way does not confuse its apologists.

It is possible to keep a list of the facts contradicting STR very long, but we will not waste time for things relating more of politics and problems of human conscience, rather than science [15, 16].

Filling of physics envisioned, "gedanken" experiments and the rough defiance of the actual facts alongside, and more, direct juggling by relativists has resulted in origin of the absurd surrealistic and entangled picture of the Universe.

During centuries physicists face with phenomena, which does not inscribed neither in Newtonian celestial mechanics, nor in the relativistic anti-physical approach of denying of Aether. Except for a stellar aberration it is possible to index the following unexplained phenomena: the Titius - Bode Law of planetary distances opened in 1766 [17], galaxies flattening during evolution, planets localisation in single plane, turning of matter in galaxies and planetary systems in one direction, constancy of a torque-weight ratio of momentum of planets, presence of resonance in steadied motion of celestial bodies.

By the proposal of the really physical concept of planetary processes we will try to understand the key problem of physics, in which the main error - a false statement about absence of Aether, as a fundamental of all physical matter was made.

For confirmation of the fact of existence of Aether and explanation of listed physical phenomena we will consider features of motion of the phase Aether, which is determining in these phenomena, but in the beginning we will consider concept of the phase Aether itself.

The Structure of Aether

"Where were you when I laid the Earth's foundation? Tell me, if you understand. Who marked off its dimensions? Tell me, if you know. Who stretched a measuring line across it? On what were its footings set, or who laid its cornerstone - while the morning stars sang together and all the angels shouted for joy?"

[ Job. 38,4:7]

In papers [2-12] the author developed the working model of a Aether reduced to following.

The Aether represents by itself bicomponent medium consisting of two phase states of the same units, introduced by Democritus. He named Aether element "amer". The amers are spherical, elastic, practically incompressible matter proto-elements with the size 1.616 ·10-35 [m], having properties of an ideal top - gyro with an internal energy 1.956 ·109 [J].

The main of two states of this medium - the corpuscular Aether is an ideal superfluid pseudo-liquid. Amers of a corpuscular Aether are strictly immobile integrally (that is time-averaged) and are collected in aethereal domains having at usual temperature of a Aether 2.7230K size, commensurable with the size of a classic electron, nucleon. At this temperature in each domain are 2.7·1063 amers. The size of domain determines a polarizability of Aether, i.e. speed of a light wave in Aether. At increase of the size of the domain the wave velocity decreases as electrical and in some cases a magnetic permeability of Aether increase. At increasing of temperature of Aether the domains size decreases and the speed of light increases [5]. The aethereal domains have a high surface force [7,8].

Between aethereal domains there is thin interlayer, usually with thickness in one amer, of other state of this medium - phase Aether being pseudo-gas [3-5].

The particles of the phase Aether are the same amers, but located in an exited state, and differed from amers of the corpuscular Aether by that they are asymmetrical "heavy" gyros moving with local speed of light upon boundaries of domains.

The set of amers of the phase Aether, moving with average speed appropriate to local escape velocity reflecting gravity potential, provides discharge - source mechanism in three-dimensional space.

The real gravity potential forms by pressure of Aether which is natural hydrostatic pressure. Its absolute value is 2.126·1081 [kg/ms2] [6].

The interdomain boundaries in Aether are monoamereal, i.e. with thickness in one amer, up to density of matter comparable with nuclear. As was described in [11], the phase Aether represents flat (bivariate) pseudo-gas having properties of a saturated steam. Its particles - asymmetrical (unbalanced) massless gyros, have identical electrical dipole moment, that makes its quantum electric dipoles. Their gyroscopic properties determine their particular interactions, which one appears as electrical and magnetic phenomena.

The joint oscillations of polarised phase Aether and corpuscular Aether presenting a unified circulating mode, are quanta of an electromagnetic field [12].

The neutral phase Aether is a measure of gravitational weight of matter and is stored in matter, in nucleons in a proportion 5.01·1070 amers of the phase Aether per kilogram [4]. While the domains of free from substance Aether are peculiar pseudo-liquid, the nucleon is the domain of Aether in a boiling-up state containing the main part of a phase Aether and, accordingly, gravitational weight.

As that was shown in [2,4] the deviation of density of the phase Aether from that, which is corresponds to weight of matter, causes different physical phenomena, part from which, bound with speed of the phase Aether, will be reviewed in the present paper.

Kinematic Properties of Neutral Phase Aether

"What is the way to the place where the lightning is dispersed, or the place where the east winds are scattered over the Earth? Who cuts a channel for the torrents of rain, and a path for the thunderstorm? … Tell me, if you know."

[ Job. 38,24:25]

As it was shown in [4] the substance absorbs neutral, i.e. unpolarised phase Aether proportional to mass density. Between moving bodies there is an exchange of a neutral phase Aether, defined by the laws of kinematics. Besides, the substance converts the phase Aether into corpuscular during the process of gravitation.

Thus, the phase Aether is foregone has attracted by substance that gives it property similar to viscosity.

The free phase Aether arrives to us from far intergalactic depths of the Universe. The set of physical phenomena is effects of these simple properties of the phase Aether. Being by the physical carrier of wave phenomena, the flow of phase Aether determines the velocity of electromagnetic waves propagation and its drift transversal to wave motion. It reveal itself clear in the stellar abberation phenomenon as an angle of wave drift [14]

a = arctg(v/c) [radian],

here v is lateral drift velocity of an electromagnetic wave, c is the speed of light.

For motion of the Earth on orbit the amplitude of this angle in the plane of ecliptic is 20.36". This drift was detected in recent experiments of George Nikitin, Sevastopol [18].

The difficulty of such experiment statement consists not only in need of precision measuring device (value of drift for the Earth is 7"), but in that Aether goes to the centre of the Earth with speed 11.2 km/s only statistically average. Peak-to-peak value of effects of Moon, Sun and other indirect forces reach tens seconds of arc, that corresponds to a variation of speeds of the phase Aether from -20 km/s up to +42 km/s [2].

As it was shown in [4] spherically symmetrical body, not perturbed by indirect gravitational forces causes a centripetal flow of the phase Aether with the escape velocity

Ve = (2gM/R)0.5 [m/s],

here g - is gravitation constant, M - is the weight of a gravitating body, R - is a distance up to centre of a gravitating body.

As it became explicit from the analysis of Nikitin's experiment [2, 4], the actual motion of the phase Aether is much more complex. It partially explains failure in statement and interpretation of Michelson - Morley experiment. Expecting a horizontal component of motion of Aether many experimenters have received value of drift close to null [19].

Vulgar interpreting the photon as a gun core having a weight and moving in gravitational field on a parabola trace many physics did not take to account, that the drift of an electromagnetic wave may depend only on a drift velocity of phase Aether without dependence from the measurement base, whether it be meter or kilometre.

From the property of absorption of the phase Aether by substance and its susceptibility to motion in gravitational field as in field of ordinary hydrostatic pressure, appropriate to Aether, another cosmological phenomenon follows. This is phenomenon of the motion of a phase Aether angle turning conforming to substance (celestial bodies) motion.

Visually it can be illustrated on flows of Aether within planetary system.

At steadied motion of substance (planet, satellite, gas-dust cloud) on orbit, the motion of the phase Aether near of substance gains such angle, that in a local frame its motion on a direction to the main gravitating body coincides with the vector of a field of gravitation.

It results that in the case of epicyclical motion the velocity vector of the phase Aether has two orthogonal at a zero eccentricity components: orbital and radial. The average value of orbital component is equal to an orbital velocity of a body, but average value of radial component is equal to root of local gravity potential, i. e. to the orbital velocity for the given distance from the central gravitating body. The module of a resultant motion of the phase Aether is equal to the escape velocity. Let's consider its results to cosmology.

Set up of Spiral-flat Gravitating Structure by Aether

"Can you bring forth the constellations in their seasons or lead out the Bear with its cubs? Do you know the laws of the heavens? Can you set up God's dominion over the Earth? … Tell me, if you know."

[ Job. 38,32:33]

In a composite gravitating system consisting of many bodies, there are weak, but permanent spherically asymmetrical forces induced by interaction of the phase Aether and substance. The presence of orbital moving massive body results to turn of the phase Aether flow according to motion of this body. As the general flow rate of the phase Aether should remain appropriate to total mass of a system, there is a response of a field of speeds of all phase Aether going to the system on inhibition of a phase Aether in the plane of orbital moving body. This response expresses in turn of velocity vector of the phase Aether from a baricentre to the direction of an orbital plane of greater weight, rotated on orbit. Besides there is an increase of a module of speed outside of this plane compensatory deboosting of influx of Aether to gravitating body in the indicated plane. These two factors result to that the planes of orbits of bodies - satellites step-by-step approach, forming a unified plane.

It concerns not only to planetary systems, but to galaxies, the flattening degree of which is an index of their age.

It is necessary to note, as the degree of effect of the phase Aether on the substance is proportional to the square of material and inversely proportional to weight, cosmic dust comes to a stationary state of a common plane of the rotated disk faster than all. It explains a phenomenon of zodiacal light - congestion of cosmic dust in the plane of an ecliptic despite of small term of existence of motes on orbits closer than Jupiter.

Besides, it uniquely determinates age of comets. Aged comets entrapped by Solar System many millions years ago, have clear elliptical orbits in planes close to ecliptic and move in forward direction. The new comets have orbits strongly prolated on an edge of parabolic, the planes of which are oriented incidentally and the large axis of its orbits is directed through Sun apex - antiapex line in a local congestion of stars. It is possible to tell the same about satellites of planets, which have a large angle of inclination its orbital plane to ecliptic - they are young. An inaccuracy of planetesimal theories and impossibility of presence of a stable Oort Cloud outside a Solar System follow from that. There can only be cometary-asteroidal belts as Kuiper Belt, occupying steady planetary niches which will considered below. The source of new comets can be only similar belts of stars adjacent to Sun System and separately moving cometary bodies existing in Interstellar Space.

If for planets and satellites velocity vector of the phase Aether moving to the centre of a local gravitational pit, is equal to an angle about 450 from an orbital movement, for galaxies, where weight of a central part is only 10 % from total mass, this angle will be much less. On preliminary estimation of the author for the Sun moving in our Galaxy almost on a circular orbit this angle is about 130.

Orbital Niches Generated by the Phase Aether

"Who has the wisdom to count the clouds? Who can tip over the water jars of the heavens when the dust becomes hard and the clods of earth stick together? … Tell me, if you know. "

[ Job. 38,37:38]

At the motion of a celestial body in an external gravitational field the flow of the phase Aether caused by an indirect source of a gravitation (by the indirect, foreign phase Aether run-off) passes transitly through a local gravitational pit of this body. Its velocity is known. It is equal to radial component of full flow velocity of the phase Aether caused by indirect gravitating force, containing the given local gravitational pit. In other words for a local pit of the Sun Galaxy is the indirect gravitational pit. As orbital component of full speed of the phase Aether is equal for fixed orbits of a running speed on orbit, orbital component is not transit.

The transit flow of a phase Aether causes volumetric circulation of the phase Aether in a local gravitational pit. There are wave phenomena of a variation of density and velocity of the phase Aether around of a massive body similar of subjects, which are known in aerohydrodynamics [20-22]. These circulations generate parametric phenomena causing forces which are operational on orbital motion of bodies, dislodging these bodies to boundaries of circulation, which we will name as orbital niches.

Radius of primary circulation around of a body is determined outgoing from equality of velocity vtrans of a coming transit flow of the phase Aether and velocity vrad of radial motion of the phase Aether in a local gravitational pit, and is determined by the convenient formula identical to formula for the orbital velocity

Ro = gM / v2 trans [m] , vtrans = vrad [m/s],


here g - is gravitational constant, M - is the central mass of a local gravitational pit.

At transit blasting of a gravitational pit except primary circulation there are derivative circulations of radii Ri, ambient primary circulation

Ri = Ro (3·2 i-3 +1), [m]


here i = 1, 2, 3 … - is natural number (number of an orbital niche).

The formula (2) is the Law of Titius - Bode with only difference, that the score of orbits goes not from a minus perpetuity, as established by classics, but from null.

For planets there is still such delicacy as presence of subniches formed by transit ethereal wind running to the Sun. These niches have much smaller weight, rather than niches formed by Galactic Wind - by transit flow of the phase Aether through Solar System in connection with essentially smaller speed of a radial flow of Aether caused by Sun gravitation, rather than Galactic gravitation.

As a result of the analysis of planetary niches around the Sun and satellite niches of planets - giants by the author was clarified following.

At exact usage of Titius - Bode Law, that is at definition of initial orbit according formula (1) with usage of Galactic Wind as vtrans, it yields very precise values of radii of orbits (see tables 1App - 5App in the appendix and Fig. 1 below).

On a grid of values of orbital niches the author discovered values of Galactic Wind for the Sun and planets - giants, which have appeared very close to each other (see. Table 1).

Table 1. Values of velocity of ethereal Galactic Wind for the Sun and Planets [m/s]















Some satellites occupy the same niche, that tell us about its youth and probability of collision and originating at the end the single satellite. The author discovered 8 empty niches or niche of yet not discovered satellites (2 niches of Jupiter, 2 Saturn niches, 1 Uranus niche and 3 niches of Neptune).

Fig. 1. Theoretical (blue curves) and actual (red curves) distributions of radii of planets of the Solar System and satellites of planets.

Parameters of Galactic Wind

Obtained above average value of speed of Galactic Wind allows to update parameters of motion of the Sun in Galaxy and mass of latest. For visualisation of further consideration in a fig. 2 the scheme of motion of Solar System in Galaxy is shown.

Fig. 2. The scheme of motion of Solar System in Galaxy.

The sun is apart about 8.7 kiloparsec from the centre of Galaxy visible from the Earth as concretion of Milky Way in Sagittarius Constellation (Sgr A). It goes almost on a circular orbit around of this centre with period T = 2.2·108 years. It yields an orbital velocity Vorb = 234.7 km/s. Local speed of ethereal Galactic Wind Vrad = 47.89 km/s directional to centre of Galaxy, we have received above. From here resultant value of absolute speed of a spiral blowing Galactic Wind will be

Vres = (V2orb + V2rad)0.5 = 239.5 [km/s]

Supposing, what the obtained value corresponds to mass of Galaxy in radius 8.7 kps, and guessing, that under this radius 88 % of Galaxy mass are concentrated, it is possible to receive value of its full mass

MG = RV2res / 0.88g = 2.5·1041 [kg]

It seems that ethereal Galactic wind turning the planes of planetary orbits, and ecliptics including, radial on the centre of Galaxy subsequent to rotation of Sun around it. The angular difference between plane of ecliptic that is to say plane of the Earth orbit and direction on the centre of Galaxy is α = 70. Besides angle between aphelion and direction on the centre of Galaxy is small too. For other planets this value has the same order. Probably, that will allow evaluate force of Galactic Wind mechanical influence.

The Galactic Wind's Creatures

"Who shut up the sea behind doors when it burst forth from the womb, when I made the clouds its garment and wrapped it in thick darkness, when I fixed limits for it and set its doors and bars in place, when I said, 'This far you may come and no farther; here is where your proud waves halt'? Have you ever given orders to the morning, or shown the dawn its place?"

[ Job. 38,8:12]

Spiral direction and stability of ethereal Galactic Wind create helical structure of Galaxy. Interaction (attracting) of the phase Aether by substance creates waves of density of substance observed as the spiral arms of Galaxy.

As the main amount of stars goes almost on circular orbits, the value of a local ethereal wind for such stars is stable during billions years. It creates the premises for origin of planetary systems with stable orbits of planets for each star. The parameters of orbits of planetary systems of visible stars, for which are known co-ordinates and velocities, are computable under the given above formulas already now.

If to accept the Kant - Laplace Concept [23, 24], which is seems absolutely true for the author, the Solar System has arisen as a result of gradual acquisition of interstellar matter by a gravitational pit of the Sun. Moving within interstellar galactic medium, the gravitational pits of stars collect as vacuum cleaners interstellar gas, dust, cometary bodies. In due course it accumulates mass of a planetary system.

Probably, considerable proportion of gravitational pits in Galaxy represents by dark protostars - planetary systems consisting only of celestial bodies, similar to Jupiter and other planets - giants. As the interstellar matter on 73% mass consists of hydrogen, 25% helium and only less than 2% of more heavy chemical elements [28], that such structure has protostar and its planets.

Protostars collect interstellar matter up to a critical mass, after achievement which, stars gains a luminosity, and we can watch it.

As soon as in protostar the reaction of fusion starts, which usually causes by close supernova or, more often, by shock wave attendant the arm of Galaxy, short-range space around of a new star is cleaned of Hydrogenium and Helium.

The refinement happens for following basic reasons. As a result of heating of the proximate planets by the Sun the speed of Hydrogenium and Helium in their atmospheres becomes above escape velocity, and these gases fall down on the Sun. At the reason of a volatilization of Hydrogenium and Helium the mass of the proximate planets decreases on two order, because of that size of their gravitational pits decrease. That eliminates their participation in process of accretion of interstellar substance. All gas-dust mix falling in a zone, where a solar escape velocity bigger than planetary escape velocities, drops on the Sun.

The barrier will be derived, inside which there can be only terrestrial planets. Since this moment falling to gravitational pit of a star Hydrogenium and Helium can accrete only on distant planets such as the planets - giants and the Sun.

On mass and composition of the Earth, Moon, Venus and Mercury it is possible to tell, that they represent a kern of the heavy elements which have stayed after a blowing of Hydrogenium and Helium.

Naturally, proximate to a star the planet - giant picks up a majority of dropping matter. In due course it results to its increase up to a critical mass of inflammation. After that the given planetary system disastrously transforms to a binary star.

The process of increase of mass by planetary system, apparently, flows past completely nonuniformly. It is determined by large range of density of interstellar gas. In the Space, through which Sun passes now, density of interstellar gas is 105 particles per m3. However there are regions, where it is augmented up to 1010 particles per m3. Accordingly, the cardinal change in planetary system in the first case happens during billions years, but in the second - during thousands years.

For check of the Kant-Laplace Concept and proposed concept of Aether let's consider the process of absorption of substance by planets for saving fundamental laws of conservation.

At falling the substance to planets it transmit its mass, momentum, moment of momentum and kinetic energy to planets.

As the gas-dust mix practically completely attracted by phase Aether, that the moment of its collision with high layers of atmosphere of planets (or surface - for anatmospheric) this mix has an orbital velocity

vorb = (gM /( ARequ))0.5 [m/s],


here g - is gravitational constant; M - planetary mass; A - atmospheric factor (excess of radius of collision at the presence of atmosphere); Requ - equatorial radius of a planet.

At the same time each planet has a circular frequency of the reversal ω uniquely bound with cycle time Tpla

ω = 2π /Tpla [radian/s]

It yields peripheral speed of high layers of atmosphere

vath = KARequ ω [m/s], K = 0.82,


which is terminal velocity of a dropping gas-dust mix c by counting that it falls down not only on equator, but on all surface of revolution.

Thus the gas-dust mix transmits to a planet the moment of momentum precisely such, that the phase Aether, being the interaction medium, supplies particles of gas and dust stayed in Space, torquing it around of an axis of particles in a back side and blowing it away.

Counting this and that the each planet has particular distribution of density of substance characterised by a reduced dimensionless moment of inertia J, from (3) and (4) it is possible to find value of ethereal Galactic Wind acting to planets

vGal = πJ v2orb / vath [m/s],


Practically obtained values vGal, acting on planets of Solar System, are shown in the table 2.

Naturally, that for terrestrial planets, on which not less strong effects, than Galactic, Sun ethereal wind acts, we can not get exact values of Galactic Wind velocity. However for remaining planets all received values accuracy appropriate to earlier obtained from radii of planetary and satellitary orbits - 48 km/s.

It is necessary to point one more effect generated by aethereal Galactic Wind. A part of particles of interstellar medium, spinned in a back side and discarded from planets, creates a flow of "suction" - negative concerning to vector of aethereal Galactic Wind flow of heated (spinned) particles, flying with the speed vGal / 2 = 24 km/s from the side of Gemini Constellation, that is from the centre of Galaxy. This known Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) [25]. Such clouds are attributive for other stars.

The intensity of a flow of heated LIC directly depends on the velocity of an accretion of interstellar substance on planets, as it is outcome of joint process of an accretion and ethereal Galactic Wind. It follows from a principle of conservation of moment of momentum and impulse of a system.

Table 1. Values of aethereal Galactic Wind obtained from cycle times of planets, its moments of inertia and density of atmospheres.


Moment of inertia

Equatorial radius


Planet cycle time [s]

Orbital velocity of entering

Vorb [m/s]

Atmospheric adjustment factor

Velocity of high atmosphere

Vatm [m/s]

Velocity of Galactic Wind

VGal [km/s]

















































































Inter-orbital Parametric Resonance

As shown in [4] the phase Aether is stored in substance proportional to mass. At change of kinetic parameters of bodies there is an exchange of the phase Aether between them. In connection with that the phase Aether, as the massif of gyroscopic units, is a carrier of a moment of momentum from one body to another with the speed of light, at absence of strong external disturbances even the very much remote celestial bodies of one gravitational system exchange this moment. It happens until the full balancing of the common moment is reached.

The given phenomenon is mixed up in modern physics with the action of tidal forces. For presence of the latest the proximity of interacting bodies is indispensable for the presence of the tidal moment, and the property of inelastic change of the form of bodies for product of activity. Thus action of tidal forces on planets visible under insignificant angles is insignificant. Irreversible operation on elastic bodies which are not picking up strain energy - is impossible.

If to dominating forces would be tidal forces, Mercury and Venus would be permanently look to the Sun. However it not so. These planets practically have not double-sided exchange of the phase Aether with the Sun. The gravitational field of Sun is too strong and creates an unilateral flow of a Aether. The Earth is another case. Mercury, Venus and Moon exchange the phase Aether in such manner that all these bodies are synchronized with Earth (Moon is turned by one its side to Earth, and Mercury and Venus are turned to the Earth by one and same their side at moment of passing of Earth - Sun line [28]). The revolution of the Earth does not obey to this rule, as it comes to a sphere of Jupiter action.

The circulations of the phase Aether generate one more type of a parametric resonance [26], distinct from phenomenon of orbital niches defined by expressions (1) and (2). It is a circulating resonance causing synchronisation of orbital motions, known under a title of the Cassini Laws or more generally - Phenomenon of Integrity of Mean Motions expressed by the formula [27]

n = (gM/a3)0.5 (t - tp)


Where n - is integer; a - is a semimajor axis of orbit; (t - tp) - is a difference of instants of passing by planet or satellite of some current point of orbit and pericentre.

Really (6) there is an expression for the whole values of a velocity circulation of a phase Aether

n = vorb /a (t - tp)


Thus, puzzles for physics from GTR relativistic position are very simply described in physics of a bicomponent Aether, the model of which is offered by the author in [2-12].


As a result of the research, conducted by the author, the reasons of following phenomena are clarified


The author is grateful to the USSR State Premium Laureate A. S. Chuev (State University of Management, Russia), N. K. Noskov (National Nuclear Centre, Almaty, Kazakhstan) for a direction of attention of the author to the considered problem.


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Karim Khaidarov
Almaty, July 28, 2004.

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Знаете ли Вы, что cогласно релятивистской мифологии "гравитационное линзирование - это физическое явление, связанное с отклонением лучей света в поле тяжести. Гравитационные линзы обясняют образование кратных изображений одного и того же астрономического объекта (квазаров, галактик), когда на луч зрения от источника к наблюдателю попадает другая галактика или скопление галактик (собственно линза). В некоторых изображениях происходит усиление яркости оригинального источника." (Релятивисты приводят примеры искажения изображений галактик в качестве подтверждения ОТО - воздействия гравитации на свет)
При этом они забывают, что поле действия эффекта ОТО - это малые углы вблизи поверхности звезд, где на самом деле этот эффект не наблюдается (затменные двойные). Разница в шкалах явлений реального искажения изображений галактик и мифического отклонения вблизи звезд - 1011 раз. Приведу аналогию. Можно говорить о воздействии поверхностного натяжения на форму капель, но нельзя серьезно говорить о силе поверхностного натяжения, как о причине океанских приливов.
Эфирная физика находит ответ на наблюдаемое явление искажения изображений галактик. Это результат нагрева эфира вблизи галактик, изменения его плотности и, следовательно, изменения скорости света на галактических расстояниях вследствие преломления света в эфире различной плотности. Подтверждением термической природы искажения изображений галактик является прямая связь этого искажения с радиоизлучением пространства, то есть эфира в этом месте, смещение спектра CMB (космическое микроволновое излучение) в данном направлении в высокочастотную область. Подробнее читайте в FAQ по эфирной физике.

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