.

, , .. . , .. , .

s_dc_15.gif

, . , .. . , s (. 1),
.

. , . . 1 I3+I4-I1-I2 = 0 I3+I4=I1+I2 .

, :

image24.gif

(1)

image23.gif, p+q=n.

(2)

, . , .. .

. , . , - , . , .


  1


, , . , . , .

, , , . .

, , , . , , , . , .

, .. :

image25.gif

(3)

: + , ; + , ;

image26.gif, p+q=n

(4)

: + , , + , .

, , .. .


  2


, . .

N N , NJ , .. N = N - NJ .

, N1 N .
, ..

N1 = N -1 ;

(5)

N2 = N - N1 = N - NJ - N1.

(6)

:

  1. N N;
  2. N1 N2.;
  3. ( )
    ;
  4. , , , ;
  5. , , , ;
  6. , , . : , ; , .

2.

s_dc_16.gif

. R4 , .. .

5, .. , .

(a, b c), . a b,

a) J + IE1 = J + IR1 = IR3 J + IR1 - IR3 = 0

(7)

b) IR3 + IE2 = IR1 + IR2 IR3 + IE2 - IR1 - IR2 = 0

(8)

. I II , , , .

I) -E1 = IR1R1 + IR3R3

(9)

II) E2 = IR2R2

(10)

, .. . . . , . 2 R3, R4 , J E2,

IR3R3 + E2 +JR4 + UJ = 0 ,

UJ - J.

, . .


3


, AX=B. , , .

A (7)-(10). A , , . - , . (1) , , (7) J , .. .

X , .

B , , ( (7)-(10)). A .

. 2, (7)-(8) (9)-(10).

, .


, , , - , , , , -, 2.7º. , (CMB) , 2.7ºK. . . , () . 1933 . . 2.8ºK - . FAQ .


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