(. Gustav Robert Kirchhoff; 12 1824, ʣ 17 1887, ) XIX , , .

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, ; . (); ( ) (18581860) , , , , . . (18841885).

Poggendorfs Annalen d. Physik, Crelles Jonrn. f ü r Math. ; Gesammelte Abhandlungen (, 1882). , Vorlesungen über Mathematische Physik (, 1876 .) : Untersuchungen über das Sonnenspectrum und die Spectra der chemischen Elemente (, 1861; 3 ., 1876), .

   


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