(. Gustav Robert Kirchhoff; 12 1824, ʣ 17 1887, ) XIX , , .

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, , , . (18451847) . , , . .; (1849), , (1853 1876). , , .

, ; . (); ( ) (18581860) , , , , . . (18841885).

Poggendorfs Annalen d. Physik, Crelles Jonrn. f ü r Math. ; Gesammelte Abhandlungen (, 1882). , Vorlesungen über Mathematische Physik (, 1876 .) : Untersuchungen über das Sonnenspectrum und die Spectra der chemischen Elemente (, 1861; 3 ., 1876), .

   


, 1974 - 1980 . , , , , 360±30 /, - . , "Deutsche Physik", . FAQ .


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