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Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, September 24, 2004

Dedicated to the bright memory of my daughter Anastasia

The concept and results of research of the author permitting to arrange physical notions about the structure of Sun and stars are stated. It is shown that the temperature inside stars on two order below than accepted in astrophysics of 20-th century. The inaccuracy of existing estimations is determined by acceptance the false ether-denial relativistic basis of physics. The results of computer simulation of the Sun internal structure are brining. It is shown that all volume of the Sun and stars is enveloped by convection. Within the framework of the aethereal theory of atom the discoveries of the Ultimate Adiabat, the Ultimate Substance Compressibility, the new phase states, the Meta-Solid Stellar Core and nature of white dwarfs, made by present author are stated.

"I shall rescue him; I shall protect him, for he acknowledges My name"
[Psalm 90/91]

In this paper, the presence of the aether in the Universe will be taken as a fact [1,4], and considered as a united quasi-isotropic, practically incondensable and ideally elastic medium that is the main basic matter, the carrier of the whole energy and all processes that occur in the Universe. This is based upon the working model [2-14], that presents the aether in the manner of a two component medium - corpuscular and phase and it is upon this model that we will consider the processes happening inside the Sun and stars from the point of view of aethereal physics.

Solar Mythology of Ether-denial Physics

"And in all things that I have said unto you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods, neither let it be heard out of thy mouth.

[Exodus. 23, 13]

Till 1920-ths being on the right path of classical physics, the theory of an internal constitution of the Sun and stars has used achievements of the gas dynamics and the thermodynamics of Carnot Clausius Mendeleev Clayperon Van-der-Waals.

However, under influence of quantum-relativistic mythology of Einstein - Bohr Schroedinger it has turned fastly on the track of myth creating.

The models of a constitution of stars absolutely unfitted with the reality were offered. Adjusting the temperature in the center of Sun up to 15,000,000 oK the minimumal temperature of hypothetical thermonuclear reaction, they received mixed, surrealistic models disregarding ordinary physical laws.

Shown by Vilhelm Bjerknes in 1920-ths [15,16] necessity of an adiabaticity of internal processes for the Sun and as its consequence the fissile circulation in all its volume with origin of cyclones, similar to arising in a terrestrial atmosphere, was turned down, as "lost the value for modern science".

Deduced by ingenious Indian Meghnad Saha in 1926 an equation for ionized gas [17] was declared as "approximate and inaccurate", as it did not give temperature, necessary for the thermonuclear myth. A false postulate of 100 % ionization of gas inside stars, necessary for thermonuclear reactions was introduced.

Being sure in elusiveness and uninspecting of their dodges, the imagination of the theorists drew the great number of fantastic chain of thermonuclear reactions for another.

One more of reasons of deadly embrace was the condition of high density of material in star center necessary for realizing of hypothetical thermonuclear reactions. There is not enough mass during adjustment of models to such density, that it is a necessary high density gradients. As such gradients cannot be presented in usual gas medium, the inventing of "cunnings" and unreal physical properties of gas medium are starting.

For white dwarfs the quantum state" of gas medum and the absurd "degenerated" gas was offered.

Besides entirely there is an elementary error, when characteristic length of a Boltzmann distribution (altitude of atmosphere) is taken from molecular weight evaluated from an average weight and the wretched value - 175 kms is received. Though it is absolutely clear, that in this case the weights are not additive, but volumes only, that an altitude for electrons is in 1836 times much than altidude for protons.

The Adiabatic Sun

As it was clarified in [14] the main power source in stable stars is the energy of an aether received by particles of heated gas at their motion. Let's try to show this process within a volume of a stable star and to discover its true constitution.

It would be natural to accept for the basis the adiabatic model, as for it there are at least two necessary and sufficient conditions: heating of a volume from within, that is "from bottom" and stationarity of the process.

Having accepted the standard isentropic exponent for process x = 5/3, and taking into account, that the pressure p and temperature T in this process are connected by relation


It is possible, knowing relation of an effective molecular weight of a mixed gas to an altitude (radius) and temperature of star surface, to evaluate the pressure profile and temperature inside it.

Distribution of density ρ of gas mix on an altitude (radius) can be received from Boltzmann equation


where ρ0 is a density of a base layer, m is an effective molecular weight of a gas mix, g is an acceleration of gravity for the given layer, z is an altitude of a layer, k is Boltzmann constant,  is a temperature of a layer.

We take an effective molecular weight from a condition of volumetric additivity, i.e. addition of inverse mass of particles.

The distribution of particles is determined by a known elemental composition of a star and Saha ionization equation for each component of a gas mix [17]

where α is a degree of thermal ionization, gi, ga are statistical weights of an ion and an atom, is the mass of electron, h is Planck constant, k - is Boltzmann constant, T is a temperature, p is a gas pressure, e is the charge of electron, φi - potential of ionization of a chemical unit.

For simulation of the Sun the simplified elemental composition shown in the table 1 was taken.

Table 1. An elemental composition of model of the Sun


Mass fraction

Volume fraction

Ionization potential

















As the source of energy of a star in the given model solely the heat release received from process of the phase transition of an aether, that is condensation of a phase aether on particles of gas and its transformation into a corpuscular aether was considered. It was accepted, that this power is in balance with a radiated power of a star.

As a result of computer simulation the distribution of temperature and pressure shown in fig. 1 was obtained. In a fig. 2 the obtained distribution of density of a gas mix, and in fig.. 3 the radial mass distribution of gas and acceleration of gravity, caused by these masses are shown. In figure 4. the distributions of ionization of a gaz mix and aethereal energy release are shown.

The simulation has shown a capability of the adequate description of process of energy release - emission without any adjustment or fitting even in the case of simplified elemental composition of a star.

As the simulation has shown, at any parameters of a stable adiabatic star the density of gas in the center is equal 6 average density of a star. The temperature of gas in center is higher than temperature of a star surface at 25.83 times.

These parameters are true for any star of the main stellar sequence.

At essential rejection from a mode of an adiabat there is a failure into a pulsing mode typical for pulsing stars.

Fig. 1. Distribution of temperature (1) and pressure (2) inside the Sun.

Fig. 2. Radial distribution of density of gas inside the Sun.

Fig. 3. Mass distribution of gas layerwise (1) and change of acceleration of gravity from distance up to center of the Sun (2).

Fig. 4. Distribution of an ionization level and energy release inside the Sun.
1 - ionization level of a gas mix; 2 - aethereal energy release rate [J/s m3];
3 - distribution of level-by-level energy release.

During star simulation with different parameters of mass and luminosity the ionization of gas is always less than 8 %.

The further analysis has resulted in detection of fundamental regularity of tendency of an ionization level to a depth equilibrium and constant condition equal 7.46% for sun-type stars. This equilibrium condition is directly determined from an adiabaticity of process and power parameters of phase transition of an aether gotten in [14]. The value of a ultimate equilibrium level of ionization can be determined from the following convenient formula derived by the author

Cion = me / (α mp) = 0.07463,

where me is the mass of electron, mp is the mass of proton, α is the fine structure constant (its precise value α = 2π / 861 is deduced by the author in [3]).

Phenomenon of the Ultimate Aethereal Adiabat

The conducted research has resulted to a conclusion about existence of a ultimate level of an adiabat in mass processes of celestial bodies. The physical essence of the discovered phenomenon consists in following. If all bodies, having temperature, are heated by aether, it is necessary for a stable thermodynamic mode that the power of aethereal heating was equal to bodys emission power. Otherwise body will cool down or to be warmed up to decay of integrity of its parts. So it happens in large celestial bodies, similar Sun and Earth.

If on any tectonic cases the heat conduction of any layer of the Earth decreases, the temperature of a underlying layer down to a smelting-down of this layer and lava eruption. Thus the thermal insulation of a heated layer is upseting up to establish of thermodynamic equilibrium. Back, an excessive cooling of layers and crystallization result in decreasing heat conduction, that is to occurrence of achievement of the ultimate adiabat conditions. As a result of long-lived process of installation of thermodynamic equilibrium the balance between an amorphism and crystallinity of rocks is established.

In conditions of the Sun there is a similar process with origin of powerful convective flows and circulating vortexes described many years ago by Vilhelm Bjerknes [16]. Thus erruptivity of solar and earth processes has a common basic source - the energy of aether.

The value of a ultimate adiabat, to which these large mass processes asymptotically aim is received by author of the present paper


where re is the classical radius of electron, c is the speed of light, h is Plank constant,

For comprehension of deep sense of a ultimate adiabat, which is a natural condition of massive celestial bodies, and new phenomena in stellar entrails detected by the author, it is necessary after papers [7,8] again to expose to criticism and revising relativistic theoretical physics.

The Degenerated Gas of Degenerated Physics

"Who is this that darkens my counsel with words without sense?"

[Job. 38,2]

Is it possible to consider the probabilistic distribution of holes on the dartboard as a development of a probabilistic nature of a lead bullet? Is it possible to consider the randomness of a trajectory deviation of the same bullet as the proof of a probabilistic or gaseous nature of lead? Is it possible to count a dirt as a liquid? Probably yes, if it would be desirable very much

However, if we approach to these problems seriously, from the point of view of undistorted logic and true, instead of theoretical, gedanken and speculative physics, the answers will be uniquely negative.

These allegorical questions have the direct relation to considering subject.

In a beginning of 20-th century Niels Bohr introduced the idea of electrons which are flying on orbits, contrary to observable properties of hardness of physical bodies. For survival of this gamble, Schroedinger, contrary to observable properties of an electron as physical particle, has suggested the idea that the electron is a wave of probability. For survival of this idea Fermi has offered the idea of the special probabilistic distribution, in which this electron the wave of probability lives. Eventually all of these ideas have resulted physics in the steep crisis.

In [9] the present author has given the analysis of Fermi distribution, as a mixed distribution, in which two phase condition of substance are mixed. As a result of such mixing of "clay and water" in Fermi distribution the dirt that is theoretical masking of completely different physical condition has received. A nonexistent electron motion at zero temperature, negative temperatures, degenerated Fermi gas were consequences of that mix.

As was shown in [7,8], real physics of atom and electrons are absolutely other.

The electrons are not a wave, but precisely definite particle - charged aethereal domain having a strictly definite volume. In case of solid bodies the electrons are strictly immobile even on an external valence shell of an atom. They have some restricted freedom only within liquids and gases. The free electrons, contrary to the theory of an electronic conduction of Drude-Lorentz are only in plasma. So-called "electronic conduction" in metals does not exists. The conductivity in metal is provided by short-lived at a room temperature electronic pairs.

The degenerated gas is theoretical fiction. Actually this is another phase condition of substance: solid or liquid depending on concrete condition.

The proof of said is that for these fictions the concept of temperature and kinetic energy is upset. Contrary to logic the kinetic energy is assigned to particles having only a potential energy.

By entering this essential correction in physics of substance, we will consider properties of atoms at high pressure reigning inside planets, Sun and stars. However, for this purpose we will make microdigression in the aethereal theory of substance constitution developed by present author.

Atoms and Electrons in Aether

In [3, 7] the model of aethereal electron was introduced and in [7, 8] the results of research and simulation of atom structure with fixed electrons were considered. With the help of this model the radii of atoms for chemical elements of Mendeleev table, relation between optical and mass density were determined.

The important conclusion of that research consists in that the electrons are not a wave of probability but real definite physical object, which is analogue of the drop of a liquid, as it has the same properties: a compliance of the form, surface tension, fixed volume and mass. This drop is a domain of corpuscular aether. Distinctive property of an electron is the presence of a charge, driving on its surface and creating ring current. This current expands an electron as a soap film in a closed loop because of electrical forces of curent loop. The electron size and its orientation are determined by this current and surface forces.

In a free state and in absence of an electrical field the electron represents as a most thin film the disk spread up to two Rydberg radii by electrical forces of motion of its own charge on an edge of this disk.

Such state is realized only in the special conditions of quiet vacuum, that is in the Space mainly. Observed by astronomers polarization and considerable part of fadding of light within interstellar intragalactic space, which are erraticly interpreted as a consequence of presence of interstellar dust of the gauged size 0.2 microns, actually are consequences of presence of free electrons in interstellar environment.

The slightest external electrical field reduces the size of an electron, and at strengths of an electrical field of valence shells the electrons decrease up to value about 10-10 m, that is are commensurable to atom size.

In the essence it is small electromagnets of a direct current. These electromagnets provide strength and all other physicochemical properties of the substance.

The electrons are arranged in narrow shell niches of atom for minimizing the energy, and the distribution of electrons over shells is not strictly constant for a chemical element, but is determined by external and nuclear forces. Among these forces there are such as effect of electrical and magnetic fields of electrons of the same atom, of electrons of adjacent atoms, of pressure exerting on substance, substance temperature. Distance between shells also varies depending on a charge of a nucleus and in a small degree from its mass (isotope effect).

The valence (outermost) shell of atom has special properties. The electrons of this shell are socialized between atoms (moleculas). They are the glue which creates moleculas of materials both property of an elasticity of form of solid bodies and property of integrity (surface tension), fluidity and small compressibility of liquids. The pasting together properties of the electron are determined directly to its magnetic and electrostatic fields.

When because of temperature (kinetic) motions of moleculas the magnetic and electrical connections of electrons are torn, the substance passes into a gas phase.

In a usual terms we see physical properties of outermost shell through coefficients of elasticity: volumetric, bulk modulus (for bodies in any phase condition), rigidity modulus (for solids), see fig. 6.

In a fig. 5 the structure of substance as atoms and their electron coupling with other atoms is shown schematicly. It is natural, that the part of outer-shell electrons have strong connection with atoms creating the intramolecular connection, and other part of electrons have a weak connection creating the intermolecular connection. Latest as weakest link determines physical properties of bodies.

According to offered model the condensed substance can be in four phase states depending on electron states of an outermost shell of atom.

The liquid state (fig. 5a) is characterized by thermodynamic condition, when the energy of electrons is not enough for breaking of intermolecular connections, but it is enough for "slip" of electrons from one molecula (atom) to another.

The solid state (fig. 5b) is characterized by thermodynamic condition, when the electrons of an outermost shell of atoms of a molecula have no energy, sufficient for intermolecular slip and represent by itself rigid, but rather friable structure.

Friability of this structure is caused by the same sign charging of electrons, which are placing in the distance from each other in usual thermodynamic conditions. However, it is not so in special, third phase state, which we will term the meta-solid state of substance.

The meta-solid phase state is the structural state of substance when electrons of outermost shells of atoms are captured by nuclear forces so strictly as electrons of inner shells.

This state arises under operation of super-high pressure and is saved at slow cold drop of these pressure, being by the original metastable phase state. The electrons of an outer shell of atom appear in the peculiar trap arising on a difference of decreasing of Van-der-Waals (nuclear) forces, magnetic and electrical forces, operational on electrons.

As it is known [18], the Van-der-Waals forces decrease approximately in the seventh degree from radius, instead of with a square of radius, as electrical. That is they are strong on small distances. Examples of such states are diamond and borazon (see fig. 6).

Fig. 5. Atomic structure of substance

a - structure of a liquid with "slipping" electrons; b - structure of solid substance with "rigid" outermost electron shells, c - "unvalence" structure of meta-solid as diamond or borazon.

The neutronic phase state of substance is characterized by structural condition, when all electronic shells of atoms are crushed by external pressure, and there is only one shell - the surface of proton. It is possible to consider that atom nucleus is in the same state exactly. Unlike diamond neutron in metastable state, that is to say outside of nucleus (without nuclear pressure) exists during few minutes. Atom nucleus having unbalanced "crushed" electronic shell leads to decay also. The known ratio of the neutron number to nucleon number in nucleus is indeed the ratio of the electron number to protron number in nucleus. Thereby, the neutron is not an elementary particle, but metastable state of hydrogen atom.

The Definitions of Fundamental Particles and Fields

For comprehension of this topic, we will give brief definitions of fundamental particles and fields in the terms of the theory of bicomponent aether, developed by the author.

Amer is the basic gyroscopic particle of aether, which can be in two states: the balanced gyro - amer of the motionless corpuscular aether having a size 1.6 10-35 m and flying at the speed of light heavy gyro - amer of the phase aether having the variable size much larger than corpuscular amer [3,4,5].

Aethereal domain is the ensemble of amers of the corpuscular aether consists of 1063 amers, having properties similar to a liquid drop with high surface tension. The domain size (number of amers in it) varies from temperature of aether [5].

Phase transition in aether is a transition of amers from one state into another, that is from non-equilibrium into equilibrium state and in some cases - backward [10].

Gravitation is the process of symmetrical phase transition of a phase ether into corpuscular, causing a decrease of pressure of corpuscular aether around of a particle, that is attraction [6].

The electrical field is the process of asymmetrical phase transition (combined with a gravitation) as a result of which arises a difference of pressure in a phase ether [7,8,11].

Electrical charge is the node of asymmetry of phase transition moving on a definite trajectory on a surface (electron) or in a volume (proton) of a fundamental particle [11].

Magnetic field is the vortex motion of phase aether caused by a difference of pressure in the phase aether [11].

Light is the joint oscillation of phase and corpuscular aethers [12].

Neutrino is the oscillation of a corpuscular aether, "sound" in aether [6].

Electron is an aethereal domain, in which the flat mode of an electrical field as an electric current closed loop of a single negative charge is provoked [7,8,9].

Proton is an aethereal domain, in which the volumetric mode of an electrical field as motion of a node of an electrical charge in a volume of the domain is provoked [8,9].

Neutron is a volumetric aethereal domain - proton enveloped by the flat aethereal domain - an electron, as a rest of the crushed nuclear shell, the metastable state of hydrogen atom.

It may seem, that above definitions both the notion of meta-solid state, neutron and nucleus as separate phase states are artificial. However it is not so. To be convinced of it, we will consider the processes of phase transitions in detail.

The Ultimate Phase Transitions of Substance

If we will compress gas, at achievement of definite pressure and temperature conditions it will turn to a liquid, and then in a solid body. It is determined by force approach the electrons of outer shells of atoms under operation of pressure up to excess of magnetic and electrical forces above forces of temperature kinetic push aside of atoms. Thus, if critical temperature is not exceeded, at some pressure a liquefaction of gas - phase transition into liquid state occurs.

The liquid properties exist when on the one hand there is a sufficient external pressure hindering evaporation of moleculas, that is limiting the Brownian motion of moleculas within the framework of a short-range radius of action, providing excess of a binding energy of outer-shell electrons with a molecula above a kinetic energy. This kinetic energy is temperature.

On the other hand, the substance is in a liquid state so long as temperature of material is enough high for existence of shear motion of outer-shell electrons - magnets, with which the integrity of a liquid body is saved without hindrances for fluidity. Otherwise electrons of intermolecular connection become rigid and the material passes into a solid phase.

If we will augment pressure further, it is possible to break rigidity of electrons of a solid phase. Thus the rigidity state is upset and there is a reverse phase transition into a state, which we will term as meta-liquid. The Specific volume of material becomes exactly twice as little. It corresponds to double increasing mass density. Herewith outer-shell electrons lose interatomic connection. Atoms move free relatively each other. This state is similar to the superfluidity.

The author considers that pressure of the phase transition into metaliquid state does not depend on chemical composition of material and is defined by phase transition of electronic shells from three-dementional "rigid" state into flat state. Herewith "hydrogen" volume that is to say the specific atomic volume per nucleon which is described in [7] decreases twice during the phase transition.

At further pressure increasing the meta-liquid state passes in solid again. More precisely it is meta-solid state of substance. It is characterized by that the outer shells of adjacent atoms are a unified shell, where the electron belongs two atoms simultaneously. Contrary to an ordinary solid phase state these electrons have no properties of valence electrons, as they are equally close from adjacent atomic nucleuses their structure does not take a volume. In this case outer electronic shell takes the properties of an inner shell.

The described phase transitions are not fiction. They are observed by seismologists during a century. The first phase transition the solid into the meta-liquid occurs at pressure 1.51011 [Pa] on depth of 2890 kms in entrails of the Earth. The second phase transition the meta-liquid into the meta-solid happens when pressure equals twice above - 3.01011 [Pa] on the depth 5150 kms.

Thus, Fermi distribution, in which there is certain of stair - a rectangular distribution, is simplly a mix of two phase states of substance, without the physically comprehending of phase transition, but only mathematical fixation of quantitative properties of transition with artefact postulation of single-phase state of substance (electrons).

If we will approach to the given problem in a view of presence of phase transitions, we will see, that the properties assigned to the electron as a wave of probability, are properties of substance (electrons) transition from one phase state into another.

The Ultimate Substance Compressibility

The properties of a compressibility of inner shells of atom are appreciable only at super-high pressure, as for usual pressure the atom exhibits itself as incompressible. However, as it has shown by research of the author, behind phase transition the meta-liquid into meta-solid the elastic compression of atoms of substance exists, which practically does not have a limit.

As is known, one of the characteristics of elastic properties ofsubstance is the bulk modulus

B = σV/ΔV [Pa], [kg/m s2]


where σ = dF/dS is a pressure affixed to a body (the attitude of elastic force of multifold compression to the body surface); V - body volume; ΔV - reduction of a volume under compression.

In connection with decreasing the volume of atom under compression, its compression strength is accordingly increases. As this process is elastic only, all energy of compression passes into internal potential energy, and the compression strength grows proportionally to mass density of substance (in inverse proportion to atomic volumes). Therefore for the description of elastic compression of substance in out-of-limit conditions we introduce new concept the modulus of a mass elasticity Km, which is a fundamental constant

Km = B/ρ [m2/s2],


where ρ is a mass density of substance [kg/m3].

As it is visible from (5) this modulus represents a potential by itself. Its value is derivated by the author from a condition of equilibrium between elastic forces in atom


here α is the fine structure constant; c is the speed of light; me is the mass of electron; mp is the mass of proton.

Using a value of the potential (6) it is possible to find a critical pressure of the electrons rigidity decay

pmet = 2mpKm/ VH = 1.51011 [kg/ms2], [Pa],


where mp is the protron mass, VH ≈ 1.14πR3H/3 - is the "hydrogen" volume with ounting of dodecahedronic packing, RH - is a radius of the hydrogen atom.

Thus at pressure higher than 3.01011 [Pa] there is a direct unambiguous conformity between pressure p and density ρ of meta-solid of any elemental (chemical) composition

ρ = p / Km = 3.2310-8 p [kg/m3]


The diagram, which we will name "the Hooke-Young Diagram" - the dependency of elastic characteristics of materials from pressure and temperature, is shown on figure 6.

Fig. 6. Hooke Young Diagram

1 is the Ultimate Substance Compressibility; 2 is the Ultimate Aethereal Adiabat; 3 is the point of transition into the meta-liquid state; 4 is the point of transition into meta-solid state; 5 is boiling points of materials; C is a bulk modulus of diamond; Fe, Mo, W Young modulus of metal [19].

Using the discovered properties of substance and results of previous researches the author is pleased to inform about his following discovery

Our Sun is pregnant!

Outgoing from the phenomena, detected by the astronomers [20-41] and researches conducted by present author, he has come to a conclusion that Sun has a meta-solid core of following parameters.

Mass density - 2.9107 [kg/m3]

Equatorial radius - 2833 [km]

Volume - 9.521019 [m3]

Mass - 2.761027 [kg]

Equatorial rotation rate - 1854 [m/s]

Period of rotation - 9600 [s]

The solar atmosphere has about 2% of heavy chemical elements, which are capable to pass into the meta-solid condition at 31011 [Pa]. Really in the center of Sun the pressure is 91014 [Pa], that is already on depthes more than 85 thousand kms from a surface the material is capable to transform into the meta-solid condition and, probably, is as a "diamond dust" suspended in solar atmosphere. Thus, it is the premise for existence of meta-solid core. According to research of the author the Sun has the temperature 150.000 oK in its center, that is in 100 times lower than in "thermonuclear" models, and it has pressure 91014 [Pa] sufficient for transition of material into meta-solid state. Taking into account this pressure according to the formula (8) the density of the core should be equal 2.9107 [kg/m3].

Taking into account, that the Sun should have 100% convective structure keeping a momentum of gas medium at rotation, torque-weight ratio of momentum appropriate to a galactic aethereal wind, blowing solar system [13], its core should be spun with the same speed, as surface - 1854 [m/s] and should have radius of 2833 kms. It corresponds to a volume 9.521019 [m3] and mass 2.761027 [kg], that in 460 times larger than Earth mass.

In this case its period of rotation should be 9600 [s], that corresponds to recent observations of periodicity of oscillations of a surface of the Sun detected by the astronomers [20-41]. Besides, such period corresponds to an interplanetary resonance created by the phase aether exchange [13, 42]. 9600 seconds are exact 1/9 Earth solar day.

White Dwarfs

Contrary to fictions of relativists the white dwarfs are not spheres of the degenerated gas. There are meta-solid remainders of stars after loss of convectivity of atmosphere. The convectivity in atmosphere of stars of the Main Sequence is supported by disturbance of under-stratums of atmosphere verging to meta-solid core. An increase of share of meta-solid core in the total mass of star brings about reduction of Boltzmannian altitude of atmosphere (2), but that in turn brings about its greater stability. At excess of a certain critical level of gravitation with core growing the indicative (Boltzmannian) altitude becomes so small that active convective processes become impossible. Practically a star consists of core only, around which there is a fine hydrogen-helium atmosphere. Naturally, biggest white dwarf has the less Boltzmannian altitude of atmosphere (2), as the gas nestles on a surface of a core of a white dwarf.
It is easy to explaine the clean hydrogen-helium spectrum of white dwarfs: elements heavier helium "fall out" in sediment under monstrous value of the gradient of gravitational field.

Neutronic Stars

However, neutron is the "degenerated" atom of hydrogen located in conditions of a free aether (outside of a core), outside of pressure necessary for its stability. During a short time, less than hour, it decays to proton and electron, emitting a "sound click" - neutrino at its destruction.
The stellar core, which mass is above of critical value, transforms to neutronic star. Besides the rests of supernovae, having mass below critical, can be neutron stars in a metastable condition. In definite time it should lose the stability, breaking up on positive protons and electrons, that is simplly transforming into ionized hydrogen.


As a result of the research, made by the author, the existence of a meta-solid core of the Sun was discovered. Also the Ultimate Adiabat of Substamce and the Ultimate Elasticity of Substance were discovered.

The internal constitution of the Sun and stars, convectivity and relatively low temperature and low ionization inside stars were calculated.

The nature of following phenomena is clarified:


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Karim Khaidarov

Almaty, September 24, 2004.

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