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Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, September 1, 2004


Discovery is seeing what everybody else has seen,
and thinking what nobody else has thought.

A. Szent-Gyorgyi

Taking as a fact [1] the presence of the ether in the Universe, united quasi-isotropic, practically incondensible and perfect elastic medium, being the main basic matter, the carrier of the whole energy, all processes, occurring in the Universe, and taking for the base of beliefs about it working model [2-6], presenting it in the manner of twocomponent medium - corpuscular and phase, working model of atom [7], we will consider some questions of substance properties, connected with proposed properties of aethereal electron [7]

Drude's electron gas, Bohr's orbits, Schroedinger's wave...

Credo quia absurdum.
saint Augustin

"Founders" of 20-th century physics were not inborn copperfields. The simple-heartedness, however, is a property of great wits, and taking offered as a "clean coin", they contrive their genious wit for link-up of incompatible things.

Drude's theory. During whole century the story about Drude's electronic gas copy from textbook to textbook, as biblical parable. And that is in spite of the fact that admission of presence of electronic gas disagrees with simplest logic.

  1. The velocity of electrons. If we take that conductivity electrons in metal are gas and if we calculate velocity of electrons, we come to conclusion that energy of this gas must rise the heat of metal in 100 times. That is to see in each physical handbook. According to existing theory a temperature of electrons in metals is 104 oK that is absurd if we take to account standpoint of thermodynamics.

  2. Metals heat capacity. Metals heat capacity is defined in 3RT with big accuracy, that signifies that is no gas in metal, since no according to that degrees of freedom, which must be visible.

  3. Metals mechanical strength (even fluid quicksilver). Everybody knows that two smooth metallic bars are attracted under close approach, but aren't repulsed by "electronic gas". Toughness of metal can be explained only by traction of its atoms. The lasts link between itself by electrons only.

The modification of this "theory" by Sommerfeld does not save positions of it, though gives the tipoffs on the right direction - there is there some jump, which defines moving the electron.

Bohr's orbits. Looking old physics textbooks for high schools in library, I see the forgery: photographies of atom with clouds of electronic orbits are given . To check it appears that these photos are simply imaginative model incarnate in technical photography, called to inspire the reader a reality of this absurdity.

For saving of orbital philosophy, excepting of such paradoxes, as non-radiation of accelerated electron, there were ensembles of tricks, which sometimes so fine and abstract that elusive as great magic of David Copperfied are think uped.

Schroedinger's wave. Is it possible to use the notion of wave to single drop? Has a drop the properties of a rain cloud? As known physicist wrote in textbook, "Schroedinger's wave equation is not derivative, it is necessary to believe it". Really, there is impossible to say better...

Science, however, unlike religion does not tolerate any faiths. It is founded on check by experience. As 20-th century experience has shown, handholding in science only on quantitative methods brings us to free or unwitting errors.

Is is possible to snap out of that artificial world view? Let's try...

Hieronimus Bosch, XV century

Enrico Fermi, century


Domain Model of the Ether

Out of the strain of Doing, into the peace of the Done.
Julia Louise Woodruff

In works [1-7] the working model of ether reducing to the following thesises is developed.

The ether consists of amers, spherical, elastic, practically incondensable protoelements having size of 1.616 10-35 [m], and having characteristics of perfect giroscope weel with internal energy 1.956 109 [J]. Sa it was shown by lord Kelvin, the Law of electromagnetic waves can deduce from that characteristics.

The main part of amers are still and collected in ethereal domains, having usual ether temperature 2.7 oK with size, commensurable to size of classical electron. Under this temperature there are 2.708 +1063 amers in each domain. The domains size defines from ether polarization i.e. velocity of light in the ether. When the size of domain increase, light velocity falls, since linear dielectric and in some cases magnetic permeability of ether increase. When the temperature of ether increase, the size of domains decreases, and velocity of light increases. The ethereal domains have high surface tension force.

Free amers, presenting by itself the phase ether and placing between ethereal domains, move with local velocity of light, definied by temperature of the ether. The ensemble of amers of phase ether, moving with statistical average velocity, corresponding to local second space velocity, reflecting gravitational potential, provides functioning of the mechanism of sources - discharges in three-dimensional space.

Real gravitational potential creates by the variations of ether pressure, absolute value of which is 2.126+1081 [kg/ms2], and presents itself as usual hydrostatic pressure, acting with longitudinal (sonic) velocity of ether ("fast gravitation" in author's term).

Interdomain borders in the ether are monoamereal i.e. having the thickness of one amer or less, up to density of substance, comparable with nuclear density. The phase ether is a measure of gravitational mass of substance and is accumulated in substance, in nucleons in proportion 5.01+1070 [vac/kg] i.e. amers of phase airwaves per kg. In that time, as domains of empty ether present itself original pseudo-liquid, nucleon presents itself as boiling domain of ether, containing main share of phase ether and, accordingly to that, gravitational mass.

According to developing model of the ether electrons present itself electrified ethereal domains of low temperature, residing in pseudo-liquid condition and having borders with high power of surface pull, which is property of all ether domains under its usual low temperature 2.7 oK.

Such domain, with electromagnetic wave, comprised in it as in resonator, has on its surface single electric charge - amer in specific, exitated state, round-robin moving on "equator" of domain and creating magnetic moment of electron. As it is shown in [7], electron presents by itself the most fine film, which does not revolve on orbit around atom nucleus, but practically still "lies" in niches of electromagnetic force of protrons of nucleus (van der Waalse's forces).

Neutrino are interpretted as ethereal phonons [6], generated by ethereal domains and spreading both with transverse velocity of the ether - velocity of light, and with longitudal velocity - the velocity of fast gravitation. Besides, it is seems, that there is other types of these soliton waves [8], registerred, but wrong interpretted by N.A.Kozyrev [9]. There are low speed "pseudo-Rayleigh" phonons of half-light (0.6 ?) velocity and "channel waves" with velocities 1.5 - 2.0 c.

The Model of Electron in Domain Ether

As there was shown in [3], electron presents itself charged ethereal domain, inwardly which the standing electromagnetic wave circulates, reflecting from walls of domain. At moment of forming the electron, as there was shown in [3], has the classical radius - 2.82 +10-15 [m], commensurable to size of domain in empty ether. The electric potential of surface of electron at this moment is 511 kV. However such parameters are not stable, and after few time electrostatic power sprains domained electron in original very fine lens, which size are defined by power of surface pull of domain. On equipotential and, consequently, superconducting perimeter of this lens takes seats the electric charge of electron, spraining this domain (fig. 2).

Fig. 2. The change the form of electron after its origin.

Considering surface pull σ of ethereal domain and counting balance of this power with power of electrostatic sprain of charged domain, creating a pressure Δp by the law of Laplace [P. S. Laplace, 1806]

Δp = σ (1/r1 + 1/r2),


in absence of external electric field and motion of electron comparatively surrounding phase ether, it is possible to define the radius of electron by following formula


where ε - is ether dielectric permeability;
        h - is a Planck constant;
        c - is a light velocity;
        me - is a mass of electron;
        e - is a charge of electron.

The value (4) equals 1/2 Rydberg constant in empty ether. Inwardly such disk - domain the standing electromagnetic wave circulates, It has, as shown in [3], wavelength, equal four radii of disk so crest of waves account to the centre of this disk - resonator, but the nodes of waves placed on its periphery. Since dynamic density of the ether inwardly such domain varies inversely with square of radius of disk, that velocity of electromagnetic wave propagation in electron's body is such, that quarter of wave packs exactly in this radius always. Thereby condition of resonance is kept always. Since density inside such domain is always higher than dynamic density of surrounding ether, but angle of incidence of wave practically is a zero, that the phenomena of full internal reflection exists.

Depending on external electrostatic field, being equipotential, the rim of disk - electron always turns around on normals to vector of field. The turn can be as to one, so and to another side, that is to say "spin" of electron can be +1/2 or -1/2. Besides that, radius of electron strictly depends on tension of electrostatic field, since the joining power in electron corresponds to tension of this field. This effect appears therefore that standing electromagnetic wave is an centro-symmetrial electric dipole, which tries to turn round on vector of electrostatic field. In absence of external hanhold and in connection to variable nature of electromagnetic field it brings only the origin of centripetal power, changing the radius of disk as [10]

R = τ/2εE [m],


where ε - is an ether dielectric permeability [F/m];
        τ - is a linear charge density [C/m];
        E - is intensity of electrostatic field [V/m].

Equation (5) exactly fits to experimental data of measurement of section of electrons capture midair [11].

Thereby offered model of electron complies with models of electron as whorl of electric current [12, 13, 14].

Plasma, gas, liquid, metal...

With proviso Drude's theory is possible to use for plasma, in which electrons move apart from ions. However that will not Drude's theory, but theory of gases.

In inert gas electrons, according to proposeded model, are placed in niches-shells, created by nucleus electromagnetic force (the forces of van der Waalse) and do not contribute the essential influence on gas dynamics.

In neutral polyatomic gas atoms of gas molecule are firmly bound by electrons that acts only on appearance of different sorts of dipoles.

The liquid is another case. Valent electron shells firmly bound the atoms to one another.Macroscopic characteristic of fluidity, which we observe in human time scale (the seconds) is too small in micro scale and it is effect of warm-up potential of liquid, in which once in a while, on scales of microwold the electrons jumping from one intermolecular relationship to another is occuring. Its velocity is measly.

It is known that atoms in solids and liquids are located closely to one another. If electrons were present "perfect gas" by itself , that neither liquids, nor solids simply can not exist.

Under influence of heat in solids, as well as in liquids, moving the electrons from molecule to molecule are occuring once in a while. Such displacement is not visible to us, since it occur in other time scale, but it is well known to geologists.

The electrons, presenting according to proposed model an original "thin-film" magnets, play the exclusive role of "gluing" link of atoms into molecules, and molecules between themselfs in liquids and solids. Thereby, the main forces, forming liquid and solid bodies, are magnetic forces of electrons and force of interamereal relationships inside of ethereal domain - electron.

Limiting toughness of Universum's substance is defined exactly by lasts. As there was stated earlier [5, 7], temperature of ether and electrons, as ether domains, inside of substance is very low. On scales of microworld the lasts are still in substance and can not to play the role of carriers of electric current in metal.

What kind of thing can pass through solid material, as sewing needle through fabrics, not destroying it and not subjected by essential resistance?

Cooper's Pair Model in the Ether

Offered model of electron allows us to take a look at Cooper's pair on-other.

Electrostatic forces of charges repulsing, as is well known, are defined by square of distance between charged bodies, but magnetic force of electrons attraction - by third degree of distance. It is easy to show. Magnetic field in centre of circular whorl having radius r, on which electric current flows defines by following formula

H= 2Pm/(4πR3)


where Pm = const is magnetic moment of electron.

Thereby, in principal, nothing does disturb to approach for two electrons. It is possible to show that if action of heat motion of outside domains of corpuscular ether and flow of phase ether do not destroy Coopper's pair, this condition of relationship of such two magnets is stable (Earnshaw's theorem does not pertain to this case. It reffering to magnets, "flying" in empty space only.) Quantitative condition of this status, which preliminary evaluated by present author is near 4 oK.

Proposed model of ganged electrons is shown on fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Ethereal model of Cooper's pair

According to this qualitative model electrons approach up to possible closest state, in which its occupy the sphere of volume of 2 ethereal domain - two classical volumes of electron. "Point" (amereal) elementary charges are revolving along equator of this sphere on distance of diameter of sphere. The plane of equator is a border between two electrons - ethereal domains. This plane is maximum of magnetic flow of two charges. Since charges do not approach on distance less than two radii of electron (Cooper's pair), that repulsive electrostatic force does not exceed value

F = e2/16πεr2, r = 21/3re


here re is classical radius of electron 2.818 10-15 [m].

Energy of relationship of two electrons is defined by difference of potential energy of attraction of two electrons - magnets, created by tension of magnetic field (3) and energy, spent on rapprochement of two same kind charges repulsed by force (4)

Wc = Wm - We (5)


As it is shown in previous paragraph, during increase the tension of electrostatic field, never mind - what sign, electron decreases in its size according to formula (2). Thereby linear size of Cooper's pair in 105 times less, than electron in external shell of atom - 10-10 [m].

Thereby, it is seen that being commensurable with value of uncharged ethereal donain, Cooper's pair can liberally penetrate through material.

Since interaction between electrons always begins from "current conductive rim", then in process of formation of Cooper's pair it gains the mechanical pulse and does the jump aside, defined by initial conditions and vector of electric field. This phenomena observed in the manner of anisotropy of superconductivity directions, but masks by high temperature in usual conductors.

The process of formation of Cooper's pair by influence of external electric field fluctuation is shown on fig. 4. Fluctuation of electric field can occur on several reasons:

Fig.4. The process of collapse of two valent electrons into Cooper's pair.

In process of collapse of two valent electrons from atom shell into Cooper's pair, the mechanical pulse appears naturally. That pulse add to Cooper's pair practically fixed initial velocity. This velocity naturally depends on potential energy of electrons on atom shell, however, as its radii differ in 100000 times, influence of initial energy of electrons is measly. Energy of Cooper's pair (5) is practically exactly defined by its radius. Exactly this energy and pulse, add to pair at birth are carried during its motion. This is defined the transmission of heat in process of moving the charges - Cooper's pairs in metal.
The velocity of charges carrying by Cooper's pairs is electric current.
Are there Does Exist pair (vapour)s under usual temperature? Yes. And this confirm experiments on "tunneling" vapour (pair) through even, quantum effect Groom, and simply metallic conductivity ? . "" , , .

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  1. Khaidarov K. A. Eternal Universe. - Borovoye, 2003.
  2. Khaidarov K. A. Gravitation Ether. - Borovoye, 2003.
  3. Khaidarov K. A. The New Lights.. - Borovoye, 2003.
  4. Khaidarov K. A. Aethereal Breathing. - Borovoye, 2003.
  5. Khaidarov K. A. Aethereal Gravitation. - Almaty, 2003.
  6. Khaidarov K. A. Fast Gravitation. - Borovoye, 2003.
  7. Khaidarov K. A. Aethereal Atom. - Borovoye, 2004.
  8. ., ., ., . . - .: , 1988.
  9. .. . - .: . , 1986.
  10. .., .. . - ., , 1968.
  11. H. Vogel, Gerthsen Physik, 18. Auflage, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1995.
  12. Snelson K. Portrait of an Atom. - The New-York Academy of Sciences, 1980. -
  13. . . - , 2003. -
  14. .. . - -, , 2002. -

Karim Khaidarov
Borovoye, January 30, 2004.
Date of registerred priority: January 30, 2004.

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