Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, June 6, 2004
THE NATURE OF ELECTRICITY
as a Motion of the Phase Aether
Dedicated to bright memory of my daughter Anastasia
(Reduced Internet version)
Abstract. This paper shows that the electricity is exclusive property of Aether reflecting process of dynamic interaction of substance and field with Aether. It shows that the displacement currents are process of polarization of a phase Aether, electric charges are effect of the special conditions of process of absorption of a phase Aether by substance. The electrical field is mechanical forces arising in a phase Aether and acting on its polarized amers. The magnetic field is a response of a phase Aether to particular pressure arising in a phase Aether.
Taking as the fact [1] Aether existence in the Universe, the unified quasiisotropic, practically incompressible and ideal elastic medium being initial matter, the carrier of all energy, all processes happening in the Universe, and taking for the basis of notions about it the working model, developed by present author [2-10], presenting it as bicomponent domain medium - corpuscular and phase, we will consider concept of the electricity and problems bound with origining of electric charges.
Apparent and Real Objects and Processes of the Electricity
The numerous physical experiments have shown, that there is no magnetic monopole of Dirac [11] in the nature. Another is interesting. The electric charges which seem as existent and substantially observable, does not exist actually as objects. Present author discovered that there is only process of mechanical interaction inside phase Aether, phase Aether with a corpuscular Aether and substance, as a result of which there is an apparent phenomenon of electric charges. In [3,5] concept of a quantum electric dipole, as unit of process of a gravitation and electrical forces of an electron already was entered. Developing this model we will show that for explanation of electrical phenomena it is not necessary of any diverse essences, except identical, massless, asymmetrical amers of phase Aether and their phase transformation into amers of a corpuscular Aether during gravitation process.
Phase Aether
Let us extend concept and model of a phase Aether, introduced by present author and developed in [2-10]. For this purpose we will repeat the general formula of phase Aether.
The phase Aether is one of two components and conditions of Aether - corpuscular and phase [3]. While the corpuscular Aether is practically fixed in scales of the Universe a massif massless, identical, balanced gyroscopic units - amers, the phase Aether represents by amers, moving on boundaries of domains of corpuscular Aether. Their motion is an effect of their unbalanced condition.
The phase Aether is similar on properties to the saturated steam. The bulk density of a phase Aether repeats a mass density of substance, counting [4]
N_{kg} = 5.01 10^{70} [amer/kg]
In free space the density of phase aether is constant and equals
N_{v} = Nρ = 1.41+10^{71} [amer/m^{3}]
where ρ = 2.818 [kg/m^{3}] - is inertial density of phase (electromagnetic) aether.
At usual density the phase Aether is two-dimensional foam like structure, as its thickness does not exceed one amer down to nuclear density of substance.
As saturated steam, the phase Aether does not influence on hydraulic pressure of corpuscular Aether. However, inside the phase Aether there is an interaction of its particles - amers, which generates a mechanical pressure. This pressure generates forces, which physics of 20-th century call as electricity.
Amers of Phase Aether
Natural property of units of the phase Aether is the eccentricity of the gyro - amers doing it asymmetrical, "heavy" that is unbalanced gyro. The behaviour of such gyro in environment of other precisely same gyros is equivalent to behaviour of an electric dipole creating a local difference of pressure inside phase Aether [12]. In the terms of the theory of electricity this dipole has the moment
p_{e} = er [C m]
where e is a charge of dipole, equal charge of an electron,
r is an arm of an electric dipole.
In the terms of mechanical force the force couple with the moment M acts on a rigid dipole with an electric moment p_{e} placed in an external homogeneous electrical field of strength E [13]:
M = [p_{e} E]
which try to turn a dipole in a direction of vector of a field strength.
On the other hand, the force F acts on a rigid dipole placed at an external inhomogeneous electrical field,[13]:
where dE/dt is a change E on a unit of length lengthwise axis of dipole. The force F is directed along vector dE/dt and to aim to transfer a dipole to area of higher values of field strength E.
As amers of phase Aether are in constant motion, there is an equalization of common electrical dipole moment of a local volume of phase Aether to such turn of amers of phase Aether, which compensate effect of adjacent amers that is counter to forces created by adjacent amers.
The uncompensated motion of amers massif of a phase Aether generates a phenomenon of a dielectric flux density or electric displacement D
D = np_{e }/V [C/ m^{2}] |
(1) |
where n is amount of amers, V - volume held by amers [m^{3}].
This motion forms by pressure gradient, which is named as electrostatic intensity, equals numerically to force which is acted on a single positive charge. In free Aether every amer creates a field strength [13]
where ε_{o} is a dielectric permeability of Aether,
r is a distance from center of a dipole up to considered point.
This mechanism provides a phenomenon of displacement of electric currents in Aether and substance. A single feature of these currents in substance is a dielectric permeability different of Aether and of substance.
Electric Charges as Effluents and Sources
As is discovered earlier by present author [3, 10], during gravitation there is a phase change of the phase Aether amers into corpuscular Aether. Thus each fundamental particle (electron, proton, neutron) sequentially, with definite by its properties frequency makes a phase transformation of a Aether.
During a phase transformation the amer of the phase Aether transmits the moment to a particle. It results in change of dipole forces in a phase Aether around of a particle.
Thus after each elementary transformation an electric field strength, that is the pressure inside a phase Aether changes on opposite. It results that the following amer-dipole will approach to a particle opposite by the previous party. In turn it means, that the subsequent act of a phase transformation indemnifies strength, generated by the previous act.
The phenomenon of a charge arises in those particles of matter, which one gravitate by an odd number of the acts of a phase transformation of a Aether for full period of cycle of a gravitation [3]. As is established by the writer in [3] for an electron it is 861 acts per tour, that in 2π times more than value of the fine structure constant α.
Electric displacement for a case of substance presence in a considered volume has two much distinguishing components
D = ε_{o}E_{ }+ P [C/ m^{2}] |
(2) |
where P - is a polarization vector in substance.
The basic difference of these components consists in the divergence of first is identically peer to null, and the divergence of second is the algebraic sum of electric charges in a considered volume of matter.
According to the working model of a fundamental particle, the odd number of the acts of amer phase change per tour of gravitation is a reason of a non-zero divergence of an electric displacement. It happens because quantity of quantum dipoles with one orientation (sign of amer-gyro eccentricity) will be not equal to amers quantity with opposite orientation of an eccentricity at the moment of phase transformation.
From such model follows, that the value of electric charge of a particle with one resonant mode of an electromagnetic wave can be only plus 1 or minus 1, as in this case there are only two variants: even or odd.
At phase change there is no transfer of electrical dipole moment from amer of the phase Aether to a particle for following reasons.
The domain of the corpuscular Aether (fundamental particle) has radius in 10^{20} times more, than amer of the phase Aether. Amer of the corpuscular Aether arisen during phase change is absolutely symmetric, is the balance gyro. It has no eccentricity. This process eliminates symmetry during absorption of the phase Aether by substance and generates divergence of an electrical field with apparent charges with
div D = ρ [C] |
(3) |
Thus, the electric charges are not objects, but are process of asymmetrical absorption of the phase Aether by substance (fundamental particles).
Magnetic Field
Under effect of pressure inside a phase Aether (in thin monoamereal layer between domains of the corpuscular Aether) there is a motion of the phase Aether. As amers of the phase Aether represent itself gyroscopic units, the motion happens according to property of precession - on a circle in a plane to normal vector of pressure (electric field strength E).
This motion is a known phenomenon of magnetic field quantitatively measured as a magnaflux Φ. It has the power characteristic reduced to a unit area S - induction of a magnetic field B
B = dΦ/dS [N/Am], [Tesla] |
(4) |
As during amers of the phase Aether motion without a phase transformation into corpuscular Aether they do not fade anywhere, Maxwell's Law for a magnetic induction takes place
div B = 0 |
(5) |
It is a condition of absence of Dirac's monopoles [11] in the Nature.
The induction of a magnetic field exhibits itself in electromagnetic phenomena through magnetic field intensity H
H = B /μ_{0}μ [A/m] |
(6) |
where μ_{0} - is magnetic permeability of Aether at normal conditions T = 2.723 ^{o}K,
μ - is relative magnetic permeability of matter.
The magnetic field intensity defined by gyroscopic properties of Aether, is described by known Maxwell's equation
rot H = j + dD/dt [A/m^{2}] |
(7) |
where H - is magnetic field intensity,
j - is density of electric current, that is component, bound with motion of "charges" - particles with asymmetrical phase transformation of Aether.
Now the equation (7) has not the phenomenological basis, but aether-theoretical and is derivable from the theory of gyros.
This motion can generate an electric field strength, i.e. the pressure variation of a phase Aether in the other place of space, where "gets" a vortex (7). In classic physics this phenomenon is named as electromagnetic induction. Quantitatively it is described by Faraday's equation
E = d/dt [V] |
(8) |
where E - electromotive force, voltage in the phase Aether.
In the terms of gyroscopic model of Aether the force F appended to a dipole p_{e} generates a vortex of electrical field
rot E = F/p_{e} [N/Cm] |
(9) |
In an alternative version, derived by Maxwell
rot E = - dB/dt = F/pe [N/Cm] |
(10) |
Conclusions
As a result of the study, conducted by the author, is clarified, that "the phenomenon of an electric displacement in vacuum" is polarization of the phase Aether.
The phenomenon of electric charge is the property of asymmetry of amers phase change at substance gravitation. In the Nature is not neither Dirac's magnetic monopoles, nor electric charges as objects.
The observable phenomena of an electricity and magnetism are phenomena of motion and force interaction of the phase Aether with itself, with substance and corpuscular Aether.
The phenomenological theory of Maxwell's electromagnetism can be derived from gyroscopic properties of the Aether.
References
Karim Khaidarov
Almaty, June 6, 2004.
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