(, ) , . , 1887 .
 pn . , pn , : . . , , . . .
. (Vo) ( ), - , . (Isc), - ( ), - . , (V max I max) (P max).

- .
, , , , , .
2009 . 43% (.. 43% ). . , . , , . 25%.
. , .

- , (14% -20% ).
- , .
- . .

. pn- (AlGaAs-GaAs), . 35% - 50%. .
.
, , .

. 25C 0,002 , .. 0,4% / . . .
, , - 0,6 (.1). . . . , ( ) . .
:
( 1970 . 1 * , $ 60, 1980 . $ 1, $ 0,20 $ 0,30). 30% , ( ) 50 .


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