, I=const

, , (I=const) - . 4. , , (1)-(3), .

. 4.

(. 5)

                I = const                         (6)

                = kI = const                     (7)

. , - - , . , U

                U = E + IR = kw + IR,             (8)

(. 5) .

. 5.

- .

ab I : w > 0, .. - , UI > 0 - - .

- a, = 0 U = IR.

ac w < 0, .. , , ; - IU > 0 - . .

U = 0 - : .

, , cd w < 0 UI< 0 - , . ( . 4) , ( . 5).


, 1974 - 1980 . , , , , 360±30 /, - . , "Deutsche Physik", . FAQ .


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