, () , . 1.

, U* , R , ( ), , () .

. 1.

I , , , , , , :

                = kI                         (1)

k- .

:

                E = kw ,                         (2)

- U.

:

                U-E = IR.                         (3)

(1)-(3) - , . , ,

               

.

, , , .

, , . 1 = 1, , , 2, , , . , ; - , . . , , (2) ( , , U R - ). (3) ,

                ,

, , (1). , - . , , .


, , , CMB ( ) - , , , , - , , , . , . FAQ .


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