. (, , .) . , (, , , , , .), , .

, , . : . - : , , , . , , .

. . . , , .

. . . . , - (, , , . .) , , , , .

. , , , 3 (. 346) (). .
. 1 . 3 (R1) 2, R1, R2 R3. R4.

. R8 R9. -

. 346.

. 346.

( ).

. , , , . , , Rt . , R , R R8. R R, . R5 , , .

, , Rt1 Rt2. , Rt1 Rt2 , . R6 R7. R1, R2, R3, R4 R5 , , .

, (, , ). , . .

. . , , .

. () , -

. 347.

. 347.

. . (. 347) - , , -. . . 1 , 2 3 .

. . . t1 1 t2 2 3 ,
. , . . . . -.., , , . .

, : (89% Ni+10% Cr + 1% Fe) (56% Cu + 44% Ni); (95% Ni + 2% Al + 2% Mn+1 % Si). -... 47 . , , 2 3 - t2 t0 ( ) -. . . D ( ) , , . , 2 3 -. . . , . , , . 2 3 .

. . (. 348,). 1, . R1 R2 3, -

. 348.     ()   ()

. 348. () ()

, R3 R4. R1 R2 , 2, . , , .

. . 5 (. 348,), 4. , . , R1 R2 R3 R4. R5 R6 , R7 ( , ). . R1 R2
. , .

. (, .) , . , 84. - (. 349), . .

, , 2. , 1. ( ), . , . . : = c1n.

, 1, 3, = 2φ. = , . .

φ= (c1/c2) n = n (114)

, φ , . . .


, " "?
" (. Big Bang) - , , - , . , . , ..."
() , , , .
- .
, "" - , . , , , . -.
-, - , . , : ( ).
, " " .
" ", ? FAQ .


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