. φ , . , I U, . , , , . , φ , . , , . . , φ .

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. 1.

. 1.

3 , 4 .

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M1-M2 1 B2 , ( ) , ( ) . M1 2. M1 2 ,

I1/I2 = B2/1 (104)

, , B2/B1, I1 I2, . φ.

, , U, U, I1 I2.

.

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(. 2, ) U=, , .

. 2.      ()   ()

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, . 1795 :
" , , 250 , ; , , ." [ .., . . . - ., , 1985]
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