. , . ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), ( ), . : .

. .

, , , . , , . . (, , .) , .

(), (), () . , ( : , , .).

- . (). . . . (. . ). .

(, , .), .

, , : , , , , . .

. .

. , , , . . Δx%. Δx, ( x ), :

Δx% = (x- )/ * 100 (91)

, . . . Δ, Δxmax () (, , .), :

Δ% = Δxmax/ * 100 (92)

. : ( ), ,

 ()

()

  (  )

( )

. :

0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,5 4,0

,%
0,05 0,1 0,2 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,5 4,0

. 0,5; 1,0 1,5 . , .

2,5 4,0 .

. , 1,5 100 (100*1,5)/100= 1,5.

. , 1,5 , , 50 3%, 5 30%. , , .
. , (, . .), , , , , , , , . , (), V (), W ().


, 100 300 . / 100 7 / 50 .


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