.

[1] - , , - , , , [2,3,4], - , , .

, , , .

, , .

, , [5]:

T = dQ/dS [J/nit] = dQ/kdS [oK],

dQ [ J ];

dS [ nit ].

k , [J/nit] , 1 o K = 1.38∙10-23 [J/nit] = 2.0∙10-23 [J/ bit].

Q = S miVi2/ 2 [J],

mi i - ;

Vi i - .

S = - S pj ln pj [nit] = - S pj log 2 pj [bit], S pj = 1,

pj j - .

, , .

, ( hn / c 2) , - . : , , , . .

. , . ? , .

, , , . [1], , 2.723 0.003 o K.

. , , (, ) 1933 [6]. 2.8 oK , .

λ = b / T = 0.002878 / 2.723 = 1.057∙10-3 [m] (1)

2.723 o K . [1] ( ).

Wq = hν = hνoe Ht,[J](2)

h ,

νo ,

ν ,

H ( ),

t = R/c - R.

dWq /dt = Hhν, [J/s] (3)

1/H = 13.5 109 e . .

(2)

Wq = εoE2/2+ μoH2/2 , [J] (4)

εo , 8.8542∙10-12 [F/m],

μo , 4π ∙10-7 [H/m],

E [V/m],

H [A/m].

, . , .


(1)

Wk = hc / = 9.3989∙10-23 [J] (5)

c .

-,

Q = nkT / 2 = 5 ∙1.38066∙10-23 ∙2.723 / 2 = 9.3989∙10-23 [J], (6)

n = 5 -,

k ,

T .

, , , .

φ = c 2. , 0 c . (5) (6) , , , c

Wk = md c 2 / 2 = 9.3989∙10-23 [J], md = 2.092∙10-39 [kg], (6)

. .

[2] E o = 7.5983∙1017 [kg/ms 2 ]. , , μ=0.5,

G = E o / 2(1+ μ ) = 2.533∙1017 [kg/ms2].

,

ρ = G / c2 = 2.818 [kg/m3].

, (6) , [7]

π Rd = 3 √(3 md /ρ ) (7)

,

Rd = 2.253∙10-14 [m],

8 .

, , [3], , . , , , .

, ε μ [ F /m] [H/m ], , LC- , 1.

. 1. .

c = 1 / √(εo μ o ) [m/s]

εo = 1 / (Rw c), μo = Rw /c ,

Rw = 376.730 [] .

, -, , .

, - , . , .

, , .

. E o R w , .

1.         H = 73.2 0.7[km / s Mps ], , A = 13.36 0.13[. ], [4] . , , , .

2.         c o = 299792963 10[ m /s]. [2], 507 10[m/s ]. , , . , , [ m /s] [m/s ].

3.         Ra = 1.61606∙10-35 [m], [3], .

4.         - () , m a =2.17673∙10-8 [kg].

, , .

1. E a = m a c o 2 = 1.95635∙109 [J ].

De = 3Ea / Ra3 = 1.11066∙10113 [J/m3].

2. , [2,3,4],

φ o = co2 = Ea / ma = 8.98758∙1016 [J/kg], [m2/s2].

3. E h = E a Ra = 3.16159∙10-26 [ J m ], - , , .

4. h o = m a Ra = 3.51773∙10-43 [kg m ], , .

5. γo = m a / Ra = 1.34693∙1027 [kg/m ], , .

6. Tk = E a / k = 1.41697∙1032 [ o K ], k , [ J /nit] . , .

7. ρ = Eo/o = 2.818 [kg/m3] , , .

8. -

a = π2 k 4 / 15Eh3 = 7.56558∙10-16 [J / m3 oK4].

, , , .

.

[2,3,4] , :

-                      , -, , ;

-                      , -, , .

, , , . , ( ).

.

2 : . .

, . , .

, . .

, .

- : . :

-                , -, ;

-                , , , ;

-                , , .

ρ ct2 ~ aT 4 ,

ρ ;

ct - T ,

a -.

.

, , . , .

, (6) (7), , , , ,

Rd(t) = Rdo To /T .

Rdo T o = 2.723 o K ,

T .

, .

, , , .

1.      ct = c o (T/To)2 [m / s ].

2.      ht = 2π h o ct ; ht=2.7 = 6.62619∙10-34 [J s ].

3.      γt = ct 2o; γt=2.7 = 6.6726∙10-11 [m3 kg-1 s-2] .

4.      ε t = ε o (T o/ T )2 [ F /m].

5.      μt = μ o (T o / T )2 [H /m].

6.      E t = Eo ( T / T o )4 [ kg /ms2 ].

7.      Gt = Go ( T / T o )4 [ kg /ms2 ].


, . . , . , .

- , [8].

, , . , .

, . .

-- [9], () 310 co .

T = To √310 = 50 oK.

, . --- [10], () , -, 17 [m/ s].

T = To √ (17/co ) = 0.00065 oK.

[1] , [2] [3] [4].

.

, , .

, . .

, , .

  1. .. . - , 2003.
  2. .. . - , 2003.
  3. .. . - , 2003.
  4. .. . - , 2003.
  5. .. . , , 1981, 159 .
  6. Assis A.K.T., Neves M.C.D. History of the 2.7 K Temperature Prior to Penzias and Wilson, - Apeiron V2, N3, July 1995.
  7. .., .. , , 1947.
  8. 8. . ., . ., . ., . , 50, 23, 1, 1966.
  9. Wang L.J., Kuzmich A., Dogariu A. Gain-assisted superluminal light propagation. Nature, 406, 277 279,
  10. Hau L. V., Harris S. E., Dutton Z., Behroozi C. H. Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas. Nature, 18, Vol. 397, 1999.


, 29 2003 .
: 30 2003 .

   

: = 5 : 0

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- .


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, 1974 - 1980 . , , , , 360±30 /, - . , "Deutsche Physik", . FAQ .


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