Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, August 1, 2005

, . , , , . Ia , , - , -, . , , , . , .

" , ".
[. 90]

, . . [1], . . [2], . . [3, 4], . . [5 23], , Ia, , , .

, . .

... " ( . ). . , , .

[24/25].

. . , , . , . , : , , , [. ]; , , ; , , .

. , . , , , - . , , , .

, , , .

, [, . , . , . , . , . , . . , . . , . ], , , .

. , , , , [26, 27]. , , . , .

, , , , . (, , ), .

, cs n:

cs = c0/n

(1)

n , , c0 , .

n , , n0 = 1.

, n 1 ( ), 1 ( , , . . , 1966 [28]) , .

n0 = 1 , , , (2.723 oK - . , 1933, , [29]) (2.818 kg/m3 - , 2003 [34]) . . , . . , : , 1887 ~5 km/s [1], .. , 1911 K- [2], . . , K-, [3, 4].

, , ... , ...

. - .

1926 . , ,

H = VD / R [km/(s Mps)],

VD , [km/s], R [Mps]

. , 1929 . , 1936 . , [50].

. .

, (. .1), , 73 [km/(s Mps)] .

. VD = 5 [km/s],

R = 5 / 73 = 68493 [ps]

.1. .

Z. , z R VD. , z -

VD = cz = HR,

z .

z > 1 . (1(v/c)2)0.5 .

(2)

λ0, λ - , ν0 ν - , h , E , H ( ), t , R , c .

, (z + 1) log(z + 1), , ( ) , .

Ri = c ln(zi + 1) / H, R = S Ri = c ln P (zi + 1) / H.

(, -, ) , z.

. : ( ) . , . , . 1/H, , , .

, , , , 1/H. , , , ( ) .

. , . . , , , , , , .

, : , ,

, , , , ( ). , . 400 .

. . , , , . dE/dr = c2 1873 [51 - 55]. , .

, , . . .. [56], - . . , 35% [57].

, , .

. , , , ,

F = gM1M2/R2

.

. , ( )?

, , .

, . , , .

, , .

[30-49] .

1.610-35 [m] , 2.1810-8 [kg] , 1.96109 [J]. 2.11081 [Pa]. , , 1.1310113 [J/m3]. 2.723 0K. .

(360± 30 km/s). , . . 1974 1979 [26, 27]. , . .

(, ), . . , , - , , .

, 1021 . , 1 ~1063 . .. (. .2).

. 2. [J.C. Maxwell, 1861]

, , , .

, , .

1063 , , 1063 , . . ~31049 [J/m3] ~31032 [kg/m3] , .

, , ( , . .2) 5,11070 [amer/kg], .

, . .

, ( , ), ( ), ( ) ().

2.541017 [J/m3] , , .

, . r c (1).

pV/T = p0V0/T0,

p , V , T .

, , p = const, ,

V/T = V0/T0; V/V0 = T/T0 = n0/n; n = n0T0/T,

n, T , n0, T0 .

T > T0, n < n0, .

, , , .

, , .

, , .

, . .

: 10 m/s 0,1 kg , T = mv2/2k = 3.621023 oK , 300 oK. , , .

, , . -, .

, (z+1),

(3)

cT .

-

- , , , , - [11].

,

dE/dVdt = τρT [W/m3]

ρ , τ - ,
T
.
,
M

, M

L ~ M3.6 L = 4πR2 σT4 [J/s] ~ T4.4 P ~ L0,5 ~ T2

M L

L = 2,512 -M-K, K = const,

(4)

(2)

z = (cT - co)/co ,

(5)

(3), (4) (5) M

zint = K10-M / 5, K = 2.610-6

(6)

, (6) , zint = 0.

z , (6) - (. . 3), .

.3. .

(1) (3) (6) , (6)

n = 1/(zint + 1); zint = 1/n - 1

(7)

( ) 1.

1.


,

M

zint

n

c [km/s]

Te [0K]

h10-34 [kgm2/s]

H [km/sMps]

Dark Space

0.0000

1.033

290290

2.637

6.468

73.3

-12.5

0.0008

1.032

290529

2.639

6.462

73.4

-13.5

0.0013

1.031

290668

2.640

6.459

73.5

-14.5

0.0021

1.031

290890

2.642

6.454

73.6

-15.5

0.0033

1.029

291240

2.645

6.446

73.8

-16.5

0.0052

1.027

291796

2.650

6.434

74.1

-17.5

0.0082

1.024

292677

2.658

6.415

74.5

-18.5

0.0130

1.019

294073

2.671

6.384

75.2

-19.5

0.0207

1.012

296285

2.691

6.337

76.4

Milky Way -20.5

0.0327

1.000

299792

2.723

6.263

78.2

-21.5

0.0519

0.982

305350

2.773

6.149

81.1

-22.5

0.0822

0.954

314158

2.853

5.976

85.8

-23.5

0.1303

0.914

328118

2.980

5.722

93.6

-24.5

0.2065

0.856

350242

3.181

5.360

106.7

-25.5

0.3273

0.778

385308

3.500

4.873

129.1

-26.5

0.5188

0.680

440884

4.005

4.258

169.1

-27.5

0.8222

0.567

528965

4.805

3.549

243.4

Virgo 28.5

1.3031

0.448

668564

6.073

2.808

388.8

-29.5

2.0653

0.337

889813

8.082

2.110

688.7

1 290290 km/s, n = 1.033.

, , , , .

, , , , z .

:

, .

, . zint(R)

zint(R) = zint(0)(1 - R2/(Rlum Rdiff))

(8)

Rlum - , R , Rdiff =~ 0.5 Mps.

(8) R < Rlum , .

(1), (2) (3)

cT/co = Te/To = z + 1 = 1/n,

(9)

zlen(R) ~= zint (Rlum/(Rlum + R)0,5

(10)

(10) , . (6), (7) (9)

n(R) ~= 1 / (zlen(R) + 1)

(11)

(10) (11) , Rlum < R < Rabs

.

. . , .

4 . , [58]. . .

. 4. .

, zprop. (8) (10) ( ), . .

(11) , 2dF , , , (. . 5). , , , -. 16- .

. 5. , 2dF. , [60].

, 1929 .

, . , . , . , . .

H = H0(T / T0)2, H0 = 73,3 [km/sMps]

H0 - T0.

1 H . , , , . - , Virgo (. .6).

.6. Virgo [61]

.

Ia

, Ia , , , , Ia .

, , , - , 164 Ia , , .

, , , Ia , .

ht = h0nt = h0(T0/Te) = h0 / (zint + 1).

, Ia zint

MIa = -17.78 (zint + 1)

(12)

zint zprop , MIa , . Rabs / 2 = 4.2 Mps (10).

7 MIa zint , (11). , , zint zprop (. , ).

. 7. MIa ( ) - ( ) zint

, . , 73 km/sMps, , , . 1., 73 km/sMps .1 (. . 8). Rlum = 100 Mps, , , [47].

. 8. ( ).

, (10, Rlum = 100 Mps) 4000 UGC [62] [63] (. .9 a,b 10 a,b). , .

.9 a. ( ) + () [62] [63] 3000 Mps

.9 b. ( ) + () [62] [63] 300 Mps

.10 a. - (10) z. ( 3000 Mps)

.10 b. - (10) z. ( 300 Mps)

:

  • , , ;
  • .
  • , -, , ;
  • , ;
  • , , , , , , ( , , , );
  • , , ;
  • Ia .

- ( . , ), , - http://www.haltonarp.com/ () (, ) , ( , ), ( , , ) ( ) .


, 1 2005 .

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