Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, March 25, 2004.

, .
[. 90]

[1] - , , - , , , [2-6], - , . , - . [7, 8]. , .

Credo quia absurdum.

-, - , , , , , . , , , .

100 - , 104 oK . , , 10-15 , , , .

. , , , , .

. , . , . , , , , , , : , , .

, , , , , , .

 

""

[7] , . , , .

, . .

[3, 8] , , . , , , , .

, , , , 3 10-15 [m], 10-10 [m] , . , .

, , , , , .

, , . , , , , , 105 1012 [cm-3] - . , .

, 10-4 10-8 [s] . ( ) , 1/30000 , .

. Te . , Tsc,

Tsc = 1.148 Te

, , .

, .

, () . , , . - , . .

, , .

, ,

, , 2 , , , , .

( )

.

[J], [kg m2/s2]

(1)

mi - i- ;
      vi - i- ;
      vo - .

. , ( ). [J], , , . vo, . , , apriori , , , , (1).

, ,

S = - S pj ln pj [nit] = - S pj log2pj [bit], S pj = 1,

pj j- .

, T

, , , [J/oK] [/ oK] .

. , , .

, , [5]:

T = dQ / dS [J/nit] = dQ / kdS [oK],

(2)

dQ - [J];
      dS - [nit].
    k - , [J/nit] , 1
oK = 1.38 ∙10-23 [J/nit] = 2.0∙10-23 [J/bit].

, , . , ( ), .

, , , . , dQ dS , , .

. , -

C = dQ / dT [nit], [bit] = dQ/kdT [J / oK],

dQ [J];
      dT [J/nit], [oK].
      k , [J/nit] , 1
oK = 1.38∙10-23 [J/nit] = 2.0∙10-23 [J/bit].

( ) [m3, , , . ]

c = dC / dV [nit/m3], [J / oKm3]

(3)

dC [nit];
      dV [m3].

, , , .

K = (dQ / dT) dx/(dS dt) [nit / ms], [J m/ oKm2s]

dx/dt [m/s];
      dS [m2].

, , k T, , ( , ).

, , , . , , , . . .

, , , , (1)

vi2 = bkT / mi ,

(4)

b .

, , , , (2).

, , , , . , .

() , , .

, , , ( ). , (, ) . , ( - ), . .

,

, , - .

1.6 ∙10-35 [m] 1020 , , . 105 . , , 104 .

, , [7,8] , , , . 2.8 ∙10-15 [m] 10-7 [m]. , , .

. , . .

, [5] , To = 2.723 oK [4] , A = 13.4∙109 = 1/H, H - . .

, , , , - [. ].

, [5,7], . : , , ,

cs = ce/n, n = Ds/De = D, Tether=ToD,

cs ;
      ce - ;
      n - ;
      Ds ;
      De - ;
      Tether ;
      D .

.

- . , , , . . , 1, . , D , ( , ), . D (3), , .

1. Tsc Te

Tsupercond

Tether

λ [nm]

noptic

D+0.148

D

Al

1.224

1.220

500

0.5

0.448

0.3

Ba II

1.3

1.310

177

0.57

0.481

1/3

Ba III

3.05

3.126

113

0.97

1.148

1.0

Bi II

3.9

3.807

450

1.46

1.398

1.25

Bi III

7.25

7.210

-

-

2.648

2.5

Bi VI

8.55

8.572

850

3.18

3.148

3.0

CaSi2

14.0

14.020

-

-

5.148

5.0

CsBi2

1.5

1.492

-

-

0.548

0.4

Hf5Re24

5.86

5.849

-

-

2.148

2.0

Nb

9.25

9.185

2800

3.37

3.373

3.25

Nb3Al-Ge

19.4

19.464

-

-

7.148

7

Nb3Sn3

18.088

18.102

-

-

6.648

6.5

NbN

17.8

17.830

-

-

6.548

6.4

Sb

3.672

3.671

400

1.3

1.348

1.2

Ta

4.488

4.488

300

2.0

1.648

1.5

Pb

7.208

7.210

2000

2.28

2.648

2.5

V3Ga

16.8

16.741

-

-

6.148

6.0

ZrW2

2.2

2.218

-

-

0.815

2/3

, - .

. 1.

- .

.
. . , .18

, . .

[7,8], , . . , . . . .

, .

, .

:

.

, () ,

, .

- .

, .

.

[8], , , .

.

[9]

(5)

rμ ( / ) ;
      p ;
      R ;
      T .

(5) , Φ = const,

(6)

-

, , - , .

. , (2), .

, .

 

[8], , , .

, , (, , ), , , . , .

- () , , , 10-14 [m].

, .

, , ,

j = E/σ [A/m2],

j ;
      σ [Ohm m],
      E
[V/m].

, - .

. . , "" .

, [8], .

, ( )

R = τ / 2πεE [m],

(7)

ε [F/m];
      τ [C/m];
      E [V/m].

, ? .

p-n

. , p-n, p-i , . , , , , . , , Na+Cl , .

, ( ), ( ), .

. ( ) ,

S = πR2N,

R (7);
      N , .

, n- p- S.

, . N , , N . -

I = U/Rnp = U2/ s1 [A],

, ,

I = U/Rnp = √U/ s2 [A],

s1, s2 = const , [V Ohm].

, .

, , .

- , , , , , .

, , .

p-n . , . .

- . , .

.

, , - , . , , , . , , , .

, , , .

, .

, , . -- .

, -

-

, .

, 106 [V/m] 105 [V/m] [9], . , , 103 104 [V/m].

, , . ? . :

, .
.

[10-11]. 100 , , . .

, . , , , , .

, , .

[12]. . .

[13]. , . .
, .

, , , , , .

, 1012 - 1013 [A/m2] .

. . , . . [14-22].

1013 [A/m2] , , , .

, , . .

" " . ., . . . . [23] , .

, .

Na, Ca, Fe, Ni, Au, Pb.

- .

- .

, . , . , . , . . .

, ( D), .

.

(Lyndon Ashmore) .

  1. .. . - , 2003.
  2. .. . - , 2003.
  3. .. . - , 2003.
  4. .. . - , 2003.
  5. .. . - , 2003.
  6. .. . - , 2003.
  7. .. . - , 2004.
  8. .. . - , 2004.
  9. .., .. . ., , 1968.
  10. Tesla N. US Patent N 1,119,736 : "Apparatus for transmitting electrical energy" (issued Dec. 1, 1914)
  11. Tesla N. US Patent N 8,200 : "Improvements relating to the transmission of Electrical Energy" (Apr.17,1906)
  12. .., O.O. // . - 1999.- 3.- . 26 - 27.
  13. .., .., .. , . , 2, 1990.
  14. P. H. Cutler, Jun He, J. Miller, N. M. Miskovsky, B. Weiss and T. E. Sullivan.Theory of Electron Emission in High Fields from Atomically Sharp Emitters: Validity of The Fowler-Nordheim Equation. Progress in Surface Science. Copyright 1993.
  15. .., .., .., .. // . . 1975. . 115. . 1
  16. .. . ., 1968
  17. .. // . 1993. . 57. . 1-2
  18. .. . , 1994
  19. .. // . 1995. . 165. 6
  20. .. : , , . ., 2000
  21. Mesyats G.A., Proskurovsky D.I. Pulsed electrical discharge in vacuum. Berlin, 1989
  22. Mesyats G.A. Explosive Electron Emission. Ekaterinburg, 1998
  23. .., .., .. . , 3, 2000.

 


, 25 2004 .
: 26 2004 .

   

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, , , . . :

1. ( - "") 300 ./, . - (, ~200 / ~3 . / , (. " "), (. " -")

2. "" , , . "" - . - .

3. (), . ( ). , , , , .

4. () - . , , " ", . 1919 , . FAQ .


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