Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, January 30, 2004.

.

[1] - , , - , , , [2-6], - , .

, , . 100000 . , , ?

, 1.

. 1. , . . [8, 9].
, .
1 - , 2 - , 3 - , 4 - , 5 - , 6 - ,
7 - , 8 - , 9 - , 10 - , 11 - , 12 - .

.. [7] ρs n

n = 1 + 0.2 ρs

(1)

1. , , [5] , , , , 1 ( 1)

(2)

ρs ;
        ρe , [5];
        me ;
        ma .

(2) , (, ) , . , .

[1-6] , .

, , 1.616 10-35 [m], 1.956 109 [J].

, 2.723 oK , . 2.708 1063 . , .. . , . . .

, , , . , , , , - .

, 2.1261081 [kg/ms2], .

, .. , , . , 5.011070 [vac/kg], .. . , , , , , .

, , 2.723 oK.

[6], , .

[3] , , . , [3], - 2.82 10-15 [m], . 511 kV. , , . , , , (. 2).

. 2. .

σ , Δp . [P. S. Laplace, 1806]

Δp = σ (1/r1 + 1/r2),

(3)

(4)

ε ;
        h ;
        c ;
        me ;
        e .

(4) 1/2 . , , [3] , , - , . , , . . , , .

, , - . , , +1/2 1/2. , , , . , , . , [10]

R = τ/E [m],

(5)

ε [F/m];
        τ [C/m];
        c [m/s];
        me [kg];
        e [C]
        E [V/m].

(5) [11].

, [12], [13] [14] .

, . , , , . . 1010 . , , , . . , 2.7oK. .

, . , , , :

.

E = Ae/εr2 [V/m],

(6)

A ;
        e - [C];
        ε [F/m];
        r [m].

( , ), , . , 1000 . , 3a, 3b.

.3. .

, . , . . . , , .

, .

. [12], . [13], . [14] . 2, 8, 12, 18, 32 , .

, , , . , (10-9 m) . ( ) , .

() ,

(7)

λe ;
        re ;
        ε - ;
        h ;
        me ;
        e .

, . . 4 , .

.4.

(6), (7) 1 94.

. , , , .

, , . , , .

Ra = RBn3/Z

Ra ;
        RB = λ/2 (7), ;
        n ( );
        Z ( ).

, (1) (2)

(8)

ρs ;
        ma = 1.66 10-27 [kg/nuc] .
        Z ;
        N = 3/R3 = 1.6 1030 [nuc/ m3] 1 m3 ; M - ;
    K .

K

i- . n, , .

(8) ( ) . , , .

: . (8) . , 0.0003, 0.995. 5, - 6.

. 5. .

( , )

. 6. .

, , .

, (.7).

, . . , () . .

, , ( ) , ;-)

.7. Cu, Ag, Au.
( Cu 2:8:18:1, Ag 2:8:12:16:8:1, Au 2:8:12:18:30:8:1)

, , . . , ( ) . 7 3 : 2-6-8. , ( ). , (.8).

.8. .

. , ( ).

, .

, . , ( )

sin (i)/sin(r) = c1/c2 = n2/n1 = n21

i ; r ; c1- ;
c2 ; n2 ; n1 ; n21 .

, , 1, , , , , n = 1. n = 1 , (). [5] , . , , , , . , .

, . .

2. .

n

d [1000 kg/m3]

c [1000 km/s]

Na

0,050

0,966

6000

Cs

0,095

1,900

3158

Ag

0,120

10,500

2500

Cu

0,180

8,900

1667

Au

0,370

19,300

811

Rb

0,460

1,541

652

Be

0,470

1,844

638

Mg

0,600

1,737

500

Al

0,670

2,700

448

Ba

0,710

3,560

423

() 300000 km/s ? , , , . 1. 300000 km/s, ( ) , . , , , ( ...) , 2.

- , () .

, , . . , . 120 [15]. , 6-8 , . , , - . , .

Mugnai, D., Ranfagni, A. Ruggeri, R. (Italian National Research Council in Florence) [16], 3,5 , , . , "" "" . 30 140 . , c 5% 7%. .

. ., . . . ., [17].

[1] , [2] [3] [4]. [5] . : [6].

.

.

  1. .. . - , 2003.
  2. .. . - , 2003.
  3. .. . - , 2003.
  4. .. . - , 2003.
  5. .. . - , 2003.
  6. .. . - , 2003.
  7. . . . - , 1998.
  8. . - .: , 1975.
  9. . . . (.: , 1968.
  10. .., .. . ., , 1968.
  11. H. Vogel, Gerthsen Physik, 18. Auflage, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg, 1995.
  12. Snelson K. Portrait of an Atom. The New-York Academy of Sciences, 1980. - http://www.kennethsnelson.net/atom/Portrait1.html
  13. . . , 2003. - http://bourabai.kz/kern/atommodel2.htm
  14. .. . -, , 2002. - http://www.physical-congress.spb.ru/russian/kozhev/Kozhev.asp
  15. J. N. Munday and W. M. Robertson, Negative group velocity pulse tunneling through a coaxial photonic crystal. Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2127 (2002).
  16. Mugnai, D., Ranfagni, A. & Ruggeri, R. Observation of superluminal behaviors in wave propagation. - Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4830 (2000).
  17. .., .., .. . - , 2001, 27, .17.


, 30 2004 .
: 30 2004 .

   


, , gedanken experiment?
, , , . . . , , " " , , , , . , " " "" - .
, " " , - . "" .

, " " ( ) . , . , .

, , . , , : " - " ( " - ? - ").

, " " - , . . .

, , . . ø.

" " - () " ". FAQ .

Bourabai Research Institution home page

Bourabai Research -  XXI Bourabai Research Institution