Ia


, , , holushko@yahoo.com
2012


     

. , (supernova timescale stretching), , Ia. , . , , , . Ia, , . UBVRIYJHK (at rest) , . .

1.

2001 Supernova Cosmology Project (Gerson Goldhaber ) Ia [1]. Ia, . , (1+Z), Z . , . , , , , , , . . . . , .
           2008 (Stéphane Blondin) . Ia [2] . , .
           , , 1/(1+Z), . . , .
           , , Ia. , .

2.

           , . . : , (gravitational dragging) () [3], ( ) [4], (-) [5], () [6].
           , , , . : , , . [7]. , (Perlmutter) . [8], c .
           , , , [9]. 2.723K. , , , , , . . , , . , , , , . , . , () . [10][11]. , . , .

3.

           , . s 1. , , , . .
           , , . : . C# [12]. Ia c , c (Eric Hsiao) [13][14]. 1000 -20 85 . ( 0 , .) 1000..25000Å 10Å. UBVRIYJHK. UBVRI - (Johnson-Bessel), MONET [15]. YJHK LBT (Mount Graham International Observatory) [16].
           0.01 . (1).

                                

(1)

Fλ(t)

. .

λ

t

; t=0

k


. , , , .

, , (2).

                                

(2)

eλ(t) . , . t' . (3).

                                

(3)

Z

T0

,

.

                                

(4)

Gauss

T

σ

,

T0 T . . , . e . ( ) (5). (at rest), ( ).

                                

(5)

Fλ(t') - . .

                                

(6)

rλ

.

                                

(7)

FBmax


, .

4. UBVR

           , 85- , . , 85- , , . , . , σ = 10 , 55- . UBVR 1. .
           . , (Δm) . 1.

1
UBVR


1 UBVR
    U B V R
Δm w w w w
σ = 0
. 0.5 7.2 1 7 1 8.5 1 8 1
. 1 9.5 1 9.5 1 11.5 1 10.8 1
. 2 12.8 1 13.1 1 15 1 14.4 1
. 3 14.9 1 15.4 1 17.4 1 16.7 1
. 0.5 7.6 1 9.6 1 11.5 1 11.3 1
. 1 12 1 14.4 1 21 1 28.5 1
. 2 18.8 1 23.2 1 38.5 1 47 1
. 3 26.2 1 39.8 1 75.5 1 78.4 1
0.5 14.8 1 16.6 1 20 1 19.3 1
1 21.5 1 23.9 1 32.5 1 39.3 1
2 31.6 1 36.3 1 53.5 1 61.4 1
3 41.1 1 55.2 1 92.9 1 95.1 1
σ = 5
. 0.5 8.3 1.15 9 1.29 10.1 1.19 9.6 1.2
. 1 11.4 1.2 12.4 1.31 13.8 1.2 13.1 1.21
. 2 15.8 1.23 16.9 1.29 18.6 1.24 19 1.32
. 3 18.9 1.27 20.2 1.31 22 1.26 21.4 1.28
. 0.5 9.9 1.3 10.6 1.1 13.4 1.17 14.9 1.32
. 1 14.4 1.2 15.8 1.1 22.6 1.08 29.2 1.02
. 2 21.9 1.16 25.6 1.1 42.2 1.1 50.6 1.08
. 3 30.7 1.17 46 1.16 - - - -
0.5 18.2 1.23 19.6 1.18 23.5 1.18 24.5 1.27
1 25.8 1.2 28.2 1.18 36.4 1.12 42.3 1.08
2 37.7 1.19 42.5 1.17 60.8 1.14 69.6 1.13
3 49.6 1.21 66.2 1.2 - - - -
σ = 10
. 0.5 12 1.67 12.7 1.81 14 1.65 14.3 1.79
. 1 16.7 1.76 17.4 1.83 19.3 1.68 19.8 1.83
. 2 23.4 1.83 24.4 1.86 28.5 1.9 26.8 1.86
. 3 28.6 1.92 29.6 1.92 31.8 1.83 32.2 1.93
. 0.5 13.2 1.74 14.5 1.51 17 1.48 19.8 1.75
. 1 18.8 1.57 20.8 1.44 26.5 1.26 31.6 1.11
. 2 28.5 1.52 33.3 1.44 49.3 1.28 - -
. 3 40.7 1.55 - - - - - -
0.5 25.2 1.7 27.2 1.64 31 1.55 34.1 1.77
1 35.5 1.65 38.2 1.6 45.8 1.41 51.4 1.31
2 51.9 1.64 57.7 1.59 77.8 1.45 - -
3 69.3 1.69 - - - - - -
σ = 15
. 0.5 16.5 2.29 16.7 2.39 17.6 2.07 18.7 2.34
. 1 23.2 2.44 23.5 2.47 24.7 2.15 26 2.41
. 2 32.6 2.55 33.1 2.53 34.5 2.3 35.7 2.48
. 3 39.6 2.66 40.2 2.61 42 2.41 43.2 2.59
. 0.5 16.9 2.22 18.2 1.9 21.5 1.87 23.7 2.1
. 1 24.4 2.03 25.4 1.76 33 1.57 36.2 1.27
. 2 37 1.97 42.2 1.82 - - - -
0.5 33.4 2.26 34.9 2.1 39.1 1.96 42.4 2.2
1 47.6 2.21 48.9 2.05 57.7 1.78 62.2 1.58
2 69.6 2.2 75.3 2.07 - - - -
σ = 20
. 0.5 19.6 2.72 22.7 3.24 22 2.59 23.3 2.91
. 1 28.2 2.97 31.3 3.29 30.9 2.69 32.4 3
. 2 40.3 3.15 43.6 3.33 43.2 2.88 45.2 3.14
. 0.5 23.2 3.05 21.7 2.26 27 2.35 27.3 2.42
0.5 42.8 2.89 44.4 2.67 49 2.45 50.6 2.62


2 w σ .

2

UBVR


           , 1 2, , . , , . , . [1]. Ia , (method of Composite Light Curve). 12- ( Calán/Tololo Survey) 35- ( SCP, Supernova Cosmology Project). , , , ( 1f [1]) (homogeneous). . , , w s, . [8] SCP. , , , (1+Z) ! , . , , . : A , A , A . , , .
           UBVR 3. , 1 ( ).


3
UBVR

5. IYJHK

           4 IYJHK. IYJHK , - . . 2 5.


4
IYJHK


2 IYJHK
    I Y J H K
Δm w w w w w
σ = 0
0.5 36.2 1 49.4 1 12.9 1 42.4 1 34 1
1 47.7 1 61.6 1 18.8 1 54.1 1 47.9 1
1.5 57.1 1 73.3 1 49.3 1 68.8 1 61.5 1
2 70.3 1 84.8 1 57.9 1 81.8 1 72.6 1
σ = 5
0.5 39.9 1.1 55.6 1.13 16.9 1.31 46.1 1.09 40 1.18
1 52.1 1.09 68.3 1.11 25.3 1.35 61.2 1.13 53.9 1.13
1.5 63.4 1.11 94.1 1.28 55.3 1.12 75 1.09 67.2 1.09
2 76.8 1.09 - - 66.8 1.15 88.6 1.08 79.9 1.1
σ = 10
0.5 43.6 1.2 57.7 1.17 28.1 2.18 50 1.18 45.2 1.33
1 61.1 1.28 73.6 1.19 53.2 2.83 68 1.26 62.9 1.31
1.5 75.3 1.32 - - 69.1 1.4 - - 77.5 1.26
2 - - - - 81.6 1.41 - - - -
σ = 15
0.5 49.2 1.36 59.5 1.2 42.3 3.28 52.8 1.25 49.8 1.46
1 - - - - 65 3.46 - - 71.4 1.49

5

IYJHK


IYJHK 6. , 1 .


6
IYJHK


           4 6 , IYJKH . . , I- 21- , 3. - Carnegie Supernova Project (CSP) [17].


3 CSP
Z   Z   Z
SN6699 0.311 SDSS   05D2dw 0.417 SNLS   05D1dn 0.566 SNLS
SN4679 0.332 SDSS   04D1rh 0.435 SNLS   03D4gl 0.571 SNLS
d149wcc4_11 0.342 Essence   e108wdd8_4 0.469 Essence   04D1oh 0.59 SNLS
05D2mp 0.354 SNLS   05D2bv 0.474 SNLS   04D2an 0.62 SNLS
05D4fo 0.373 SNLS   05D1ix 0.49 SNLS   04D1sk 0.663 SNLS
05D4cw 0.375 SNLS   04D1pg 0.515 SNLS   05D2bt 0.679 SNLS
SN5183 0.39 SDSS   05D2eb 0.534 SNLS   05D2ck 0.698 SNLS


           , . , 05D4cw 05D2bv, . 05D4cw CSP , . , , 7. 05D2bv , , (. 8). 7 8 CSP.


7                                                                              8


           2 5 , IYJHK , UBVR. .
           - , , . . , - .

6.

           , , . , . , , , Ia. 9 0 σ.


9
0


           , , (aging) , , . [2]. σ , 1 σ. , , 3000..7000Å. σ>0 σ=0, . σ>0 σ=0. 10. , , [18].


10


. 0 30 . . 0 11. . , .


11
0-


           , ., , . , k k=1/(1+Z). , . , Z σ. , , σ . σ 3000...7000Å. Z σ 4 12.


4
σ k Z
0 1 0
5 0.917 0.09
10 0.766 0.305
15 0.529 0.89
20 0.376 1.657

12

7.

           , Ia. , , , , . , , . :

  • ( ) Z>1

  • , , [19][20]

, ( ), , , :

  • , , .

  • - .

  • , .

  • , .

  • 85- 120- , .


PDF

1.

Goldhaber G. et al., Timescale Stretch Parameterization of Type Ia Supernova B-band Light Curves, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 558:359-368, 2001 September 1, http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/558/1/359/pdf/0004-637X_558_1_359.pdf

2.

Blondin S. et al., Time Dilation in Type Ia Supernova Spectra at High Redshift, The Astrophysical Journal, 682:724-736, 2008 August 1, http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/682/2/724/pdf/0004-637X_682_2_724.pdf

3.

Fritz Zwicky, "On the Red Shift of Spectral Lines through Interstellar Space", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Volume 15, Issue 10, pp. 773-779, 1929 http://www.pnas.org/content/15/10/773.full.pdf

4.

Hubble Edwin and Richard C.Tolman , "Two Methods of Investigating the Nature of the Nebular Redshift", Astrophysical Journal, vol. 82, p.302, 1935

5.

Erwin Finlay-Freundlich, "Red-Shifts in the Spectra of Celestial Bodies", Proceedings of the Physical Society. Section A, vol.82, p.192, 1954

6.

David F. Crawford, "Curvature pressure in a cosmology with a tired-light redshift", Australian J. Phys., 52, 753, 1999, http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/9904131.pdf

7.

. , , , 2003, http://bourabai.kz/vselennaya.htm

8.

Perlmutter S. et al., Measurements of Ω and Λ from 42 High-Redshift Supernovae, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 517, pp.565- 586, 1999 June 1, http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/517/2/565/pdf/0004-637X_517_2_565.pdf

9.

. , , , 2005, http://bourabai.kz/redshifts.htm

10.

Alexander Chepick, "Supremum of the Interaction Speed of the Matter", Spacetime & Substance, vol.82, No.3, p.122, 2002, http://spacetime.narod.ru/0013-pdf.zip

11.

Alexander Chepick, "Explanation of width- and stretch-factors for Type Ia Supernovae", 2002 http://redshift0.narod.ru/Eng/Stationary/Redshift/S_factor_En.htm

12.

Herman Holushko., Simulation Software SNSim, http://www.holushko.net/download/SNSim.zip

13.

Hsiao E. et al., K-Corrections and Spectral Templates of Type Ia Supernovae, The Astrophysical Journal, vol. 663, p.1187, 2007 July 10, http://iopscience.iop.org/0004-637X/663/2/1187/pdf/71052.web.pdf

14.

Eric Hsiao Page, Spectral Template of Type Ia Supernovae, http://supernova.lbl.gov/~hsiao/uber/hsiao_template.tar.gz

15.

The MONET (MOnitoring NEtwork of Telescopes) Project. Available Filters, http://monet.uni-goettingen.de/foswiki/MonetObserving/Filters

16.

Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) Mount Graham International Observatory. Filters LUCIFER1, http://www.lsw.uni-heidelberg.de/users/agermero/calculator/docu_html/node29.html

17.

The Carnegie Supernova Project. High-z CSP Supernovae, http://obs.carnegiescience.edu/CSP/data/highzSNe

18.

Herman Holushko, Software for matching spectra SpectraAging, http://www.holushko.net/download/SpectraAging.zip

19.

Domingos S. L. Soares, Sandage versus Hubble on the reality of the expanding universe, 2008 February 2, arXiv:physics/0605098v3, http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0605098.pdf

19.

20. Eric J. Lerner, Evidence for a Non-Expanding Universe: Surface Brightness Data From HUDF, AIP Conf. Proc. 822, pp. 60-74, 2005, arXiv:astro-ph/0509611v2 http://arxiv.org/pdf/astro-ph/0509611v2.pdf


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