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3GL

()

, () . ?

-, . " ", (), . , . . , - , . -, , . , .

, ( , ).

, , ( ) , , . , , . .

, , . , - , .

, (bas, , , pas), . . QBasic CHAIN. Turbo (Borland C++) , . Turbo Pascal , unit Uses.

() Turbo obj. , . tlib.exe lib. .

, unit, tpu ( Turbo Pascal Unit) , .

(, ) . , , , - ovl. .

QBasic

QBasic . , , . , . .

, "FN", :

DEF FNs1s2...[()]

, , :

FNs1s2. . . =

END DEF. EXIT DBF, .

, , , END DEF :

DEF FNs1s2. . . [()]=

, . , , , . . , . . . , :

DEF FNd=SQR((X1-X2)^2+(Y1-Y2)^2+(Z1-Z2)^2)

37 3 .

. - , .

:

FUNCTION _[()][STATIC]

STATIC , . , STATIC :

STATIC Q1 AS INTEGER, F AS DOUBLE

, , :

_ =

, .

END FUNCTION. EXIT FUNCTION.

, (% , & , ! , # , $ -). , .

.

, , , GOSUB. RETURN, , GOSUB. , . . .

:

SUB -[()][STATIC]

END SUB. EXIT SUB.

, :

_ [ ]


CALL _[( )]

Turbo

. void, ( , ). , . , . , , "void *" :

void _([])


_([])


* _([])

, , . , return . :

int sign(int x)

{

/* */

if(x<0) return -1;

if(x>0) return 1;

return 0; }

, , . cirscr ().

main, , . :

void main(void)

- , :

_( );

, , :

int qq;

qq=getch(); /* */

, getch , . . , . , , :

sin(0.5);

, . . getch , - .

Turbo Pascal

, , :

procedure _[()];

. (label), (const), (type), (var) , . , . begin end, , , , .

end . , , . , , . , , . . .

, . , , ( ) forward. (forward , ):

procedure _[()]; forward;

, .

.

, function .

function _[()]:;

:

_:=;

exit.

, . :

program _;

begin, , end .


, :

Unit _;

, , , MS-DOS. , (, compile Make Build) Turbo Pascal . , .

, , interface, implementation begin. , interface, , , , , .

implementation , . , , , . , , , . . (implementation) begin, . , . , end .

. , , , :

Unit Calendar interface type

Days=(Mon,Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri,Sat,Sun);

WorkingDays=Mon..Fri;

Months=(Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr,May,June,

July,Aug,Sept,Oct,Nov,Decem);

Summer=June..Aug;

Autumn=Sep.. Nov;

Spring=Mar..May;

DayNo=l..31;

YearNo=1900..2119;

Date=record Day:DayNo;

Month:Months;

Year:YearNo; end;

implementation end.

, , - , . .

,

, , . QBasic (), . , , , . , . . , . . , . , , .

, . , -, () .

, , . , .

, . , , . , .

, . , . , , . . , . , , .

? . (% , & , ! , # - , $ ), AS type. INTEGER, LONG, SINGLE, DOUBLE STRING.

, , , . , , LBOUND UBOUND. ( ), . , LBOUND(A, 1) LBOUND () .

, . , , . , . , . , QBasic , , . , QBasic , .

, Turbo , Turbo Pascal, . -

, . , , , , var. . , , const.

, ( ).

QBasic , , SHARED ( - " "):

DIM SHARED A(20)

AS INTEGER, D

AS SINGLE

COMMON

SHARED A(20)

AS INTEGER, D

AS SINGLE

, ( ) , -, CHAIN.

, , - . , . , . , , extern ():

extern int a[20]; extern float d;

. , , uses. .


XX . "15", . 4x4 15 1, 2, ..., 15.

. , $100000, 14 15 . , . .

, , . , . ( ) . ( , ).

2x3, , , , I, S. BASIC:


, BASIC. , . "*".

:


, , . 6!=720, . , BASIC* 359 .

tree, 360 , ind[360], . tree ind (. 6.1):

6.1. tree ind




0

BASIC*

-1

1

BAIC*S

0

2

BASI*C

0

3

B*AICS

1

4

B*SIAC

2

5

BASIC

2

6

BCAI*S

3

, . , . , BASIC*. k- , :

, , ( 1).

1 ()

: i- j-ro , (i-l, j), (i+1, j), (i, j-1), (i, j + 1). , , . , change . , .

2 ()

, 2x3, . , . k (i,j) :

k = i * 3 + j. i = k div 3. j = k mod 3.

, , 0, , . 1. k.

3 ()

:

6_01.bas

DECLARE SUB change (il AS INTEGER, j1 AS INTEGER)

DECLARE SUB printTAB (s AS STRING)

DECLARE SUB level ()

DECLARE SUB poisk ()

REM BASIC

DEFINT A-Z

DIM SHARED x0 AS INTEGER, y0 AS INTEGER, nmax AS INTEGER, k AS INTEGER

DIM SHARED from AS INTEGER

DIM SHARED tree(360) AS STRING * 6, ind(360) AS INTEGER, pos0 AS STRING * 6

nmax = 1: x0 = 1: y0 -= 2

tree(0) = "BASIC*"

ind(0) = -1

CLS

INPUT " - ", pos0

FOR from = 0 TO nmax - 1:

level NEXT from poisk END

SUB change (il AS INTEGER, jl AS INTEGER)

DIM n AS INTEGER, kl AS INTEGER, tmp AS STRING, str2 AS STRING

IF (il < 0) OR (il > 1) OR (jl < 0) OR (jl > 2) THEN EXIT SUB

kl = il * 3 + jl + 1

str2 = tree(from)

tmp = MID$(str2, k, 1)

MID$(str2, k, 1) =MID$(str2, kl, 1)

MID$(str2, kl, 1) = tmp

FOR n = 0 TO nmax - 1

IF str2 = tree(n) THEN EXIT SUB

NEXT n

ind(nmax) = from

tree(nmax) = str2

nmax = nmax + 1 END SUB

SUB level

FOR k = 1 TO 6

IF MID$(tree(from), k, 1) = "*" THEN EXIT FOR

NEXT k

i = (k - 1} \ 3 '

j = (k - 1) MOD 3'

CALL change(i - 1, j)

CALL change(i + 1, j )

CALL change(i, j - 1)

CALL change(i, j + 1)

END SUB

SUB poisk

FOR q = 0 TO nmax - 1

IF pos0 = tree(q) THEN GOTO m

NEXT q

PRINT " "

EXIT SUB

m:

CALL printTAB(tree(q))

q = ind(q)

IF q >= 0 THEN GOTO m

END SUB

SUB printTAB (s AS STRING)

LOCATE y0, x0: PRINT "+-+-+-+"

LOCATE y0 + 1, x0: PRINT " | ";

MID$(s, 1, 1);

PRINT "|"; MID$(s, 2, 1);

PRINT "|"; MID$(s, 3, 1); "I" LOCATE y0 + 2, x0:

PRINT "+-+-+-+" LOCATE y0 + 3, x0: PRINT "|"; MID$(s, 4, 1);

PRINT "|"; MID$(s, 5, 1);

PRINT "|"; MID$(s, 6, 1); " |" LOCATE y0 + 4, x0:

PRINT "+-+-+-+" x0 = x0 + 10

IF x0 = 81 THEN y0 = y0 + 5: x0 = 1

END SUB

6_01.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include <string.h>

void level();

void change(int il, int J12);

void poisk(};

void print_tab(char* s);

char tree[360][7];

char pos0[7];

int ind[360];

int i,j,k,nmax=l;

int x0=l,y0=2;

int from;

void main() {

strcpy(&tree[0][0],"BASIC*");

ind[0]=-l;

clrscr();

printf(" - ");

scanf("%s",pos0);

for(from=0; from<nmax; from++) level();

poisk () ;

getch ();

}

//---------------------------------

void level() {

for{k=0; k<6; k++)

if(tree[from][k]=='*')break;

i=k/3; //

j=k%3; //

change (i-1,j);

change(i+1,j);

change(i,j-1);

change(i,j+1); }

//-------------------------------------

void change(int i1, int j1) { char tmp,str2[7];

int n,kl;

if(il<0 || i1>l || jl<0 | | jl>2) return;

kl=il*3+jl;

strcpy(str2, (char*)street from][0]);

tmp=str2[k]; str2[k]=str2[kl]; str2[kl]=tmp;

for(n=0; n<nmax; n++)

if(strcmp(str2,(char*)&tree[n][0])==0) return;

ind[nmax] =f rom;

strcpy((char*)stree[n] [0] , str2);

nmax++;

}

//--------------------------------------

void poisk() { char *p;

p=Stree[0][0] ;

for(int q=0; q<nmax; q++)

if(strcmp(pos0,p+q*7)==0) goto m;

printf("\n ");

return;

m:

print_tab(p+q*7) ;

q=ind[q];

if(q>=0) goto m;

return;

}

//-------------------------------------------

void print_tab(char* s) { char top[]= "+-+-+-+";

charmid[]= "+-+-+-+";

char bottom[]="+-+-+-+";

gotoxy(x0,y0);

printf("%s",top);

gotoxy(x0,y0+l) ;

printf("|%c|%c!%c|",s [0],s [1],s [2]);

gotoxy(x0,y0+2);

printf("%s", mid);

gotoxy(x0,y0+3);

printf(";%ci%ci%c!",s[3],s[4],s[5]);

gotoxy(x0,y0+4);

printf("%s",bottom);

x0=x0+10;

if(x0==81){y0=y0+5;x0=l;} }

6_01.pas

program basic; uses Crt;

var

tree:array [0..359] of string[6];

pos0:string[6];

ind:array [0..359] of integer;

x0,y0,i,j,k,nmax,from:integer;

procedure print_tab(s:string);

begin

gotoxy(x0,y0);

write{'+-+-+-+' );

gotoxy(x0,y0+1);

write {' |',s[l],'|',s[2],'|',s[3],'|');

gotoxy(x0,y0+2);

write('|-+-+-|');

gotoxy(x0,y0+3);

write('!',s[4],'|',s[5],'|',s[6],'| ');

gotoxy(x0,y0+4);

write('+-+-+-+');

x0:=x0+10;

if(x0=81)then begin y0:=y0+5;

x0:=l;

end;

end;

procedure poisk;

var

q:integer;

label m; begin

for q:=0 to nmax-1 do

if pos0=tree[q] then goto m;

write(' ');

readln;

exit;

m:

print_tab(tree[q]};

q:=ind[q];

if q>=0 then goto m;

end;

procedure change(il,jl:integer);

var

tmp:char;

str2:string[6];

n,kl:integer; begin

if (i1<0)or (i1>l)or(j1<0)or(j1>2) then exit;

kl:=il*3+jl+l;

str2 : =tree.[ from] ;

tmp:=str2[k] ;

str2[k]:=str2[kl];

str2[kl]:=tmp;

for n:=0 to nmax-1 do

if str2=tree[n] then exit;

ind[nmax]:=from;

tree[nmax]:=str2;

inc(nmax); end;

procedure level; begin

for k:=l to 6 do

if tree[from] [k] = '*' then break;

i:=(k-l) div 3; { }

j:=(k-l) mod 3; { }

change(i-1,j};

change(i+1,j);

change(i,j-1);

change(i,j+1);

end;

begin

nmax:=l;

x0:=l; y0:=2;

tree[0]:='BASIC*';

ind[0]:=-1;

clrscr;

write(' ');

read(pos0);

for from:=0 to 359 do level;

poisk;

readln;

end.

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