. - 3GL   - 4GL   5GL  

3GL

, , , . , , k . 1- :

(A[i]) = ([0]) + i * k

MXN, , [i, j ] :

([i,j]) = ([0,0]) + (i * N + j) * k

, , .

, (QBasic) (, ) , . , .

, , . , , . , . , , .


QBasic DIM:

DIM (10),(2 8,3 5),(3,2,6)

, 0, , , 10, 11 . "qq kk" , .

QBasic , . :

INPUT " F", N DIM F(N)

:

INPUT " F",M REDIM F(M)

, . QBasic . DIM , .

, "" . , , . , .

- . :

#define N_max 50

char a1[20], a2[5][80];

int b1[25],b2[N_max];

0, , , b1 b1[0], b1[1], ..., b1[24]. b1[25] .

. , f, q k ( q k ), :

type

mat_q_k=array [l..q,l..k] of integer;

var

f :mat_q__k;

var

f:array [l..q,l..k] of integer;

var

f:array [l..q][l..k] of integer;

var

f:array [l..q] of array [l..k] of integer;

, , . , :

var

ch:array ['A'..'Z'] of integer;

str:string;

begin

.....................

inc(ch[str[j]]) ;

....................

.


"" . , (, , ).

. :

char [7]="";

char b[7]={'','','','','','',0x00};

char []="";

int d[10] = {1,2,3,4};

int f[2][3]={{1,2,3}, {4,5,6}};

, . [6] . , , . , . . 7 , , .

const: const

a:string[7]='';

d:array [1..10] of integer=(1,2,3,4);

f:array [1..2,1..3] of integer=((1,2,3),(4,5,6));

. .


, , .

QBasic , . , . , . . , . . .

QBasic , . , $STATIC REM $DYNAMIC, , . ERASE v1,v2, ... "", . "" () . REDIM , . .

:

q=(_q *)calloc(n_el,s_el); // ;

q=( q *)farcalloc(n_el,s_el); // ;

q=(_q *)malloc(n_byte); // ""

q=(_q *)farmalloc(n_byte); // ""

q new=realloc(q_old,n_byte); //

q_new=farrealloc(q_old,n_byte); //

free(q); //

farfree(q); //

q , . n_el s_el . n_byte .

, "", 65 521 . far , far huge, "" 64 . "" (NULL) . , q.

realloc (farreallioc) . , . , , q_old, .

Borland C++ , :

q=new [n_1]; // n_e1 ;

q=new ; // ;

delete q[n_e1]; // , ;

delete q; // ,

// ;.

New:

type

mas=array [1..200] of integer;

point=^mas; var

p:point;

j:integer;

..................

begin New(p);

for j :=1 to 200 do

readln(p^[j]);

...................

Dispose (). GetMem(q,n_byte) FreeMem(q,n_byte). , , (q:pointer;).

, , , "" . . " " :

q=NULL; //

p:=nil; //

, . , , , .


, , , . :

SUBROUTINE MATMULT(A,B,C,N)

REAL A(N,N),B(N,N),C(N,N),D

DO 1 J=1,N

DO 1 K=1,N D=0

DO 2 L=1,N

2 D=D+A(J,L)*B(L,K)

1 C(J,K)=D

END

, . .

- QBasic

QBasic. . :

4_01.bas

DECLARE SUB ADDMAT(A%(),B%(),C%(),N%) DEFINT A-Z CLS

DIM A1(2,2), A2(2,2),A3{2,2)

DIM Bl(3,3),B2(3,3),B3(3,3)

FOR J=0 TO 2 : FOR K=0 TO 2

A1(J,K)=J+K : A2(J,K)=J*K

NEXT : NEXT J

CALL ADDMAT(Al(),A2(),A3() ,2) '

FOR J=0 TO 3 : FOR K=0 TO 3 B1(J,K)=J+K :

B2(J,K)=J*K

NEXT : NEXT J

ADDMAT Bl(),B2(),B3(),3 ' END

SUB ADDMAT (A%(),%(),%(),N%)

DEFINT A-Z

FOR Q=0 TO N : FOR S=0 N

C(Q,S)=A(Q,S)+B(Q,S)

NEXT S : NEXT Q

END SUB

, - , , . DIM A(N,N) . , , . , %, B%, C%, N%, , , , N. DEFINT A-Z, .

, .

-

, , , . , :

function Max(a:array [1..100] of integer):integer;

:

type

mas100=array [1..100] of integer;

function Max(a:mas100):integer;

masioo. ? , :

function Max(a:mas100; n:integer):integer;

n , mas100.

, :

function Max(var a; n:integer):integer;

type

b=array [1.. Maxlnt] of integer;

var

m,k:integer;

begin

m:=b(a}[1];

for k:=2 to n do

if m<b(a)[k] then m:=b(a)[k] ;

Max:=m;

end;

b() , , . " ". "b". , n ( , ). , Maxint, 64 .

, :

function Max(var a; n:integer):integer;

var

c:array[l.. Maxlnt] of integer absolute a;

m,k:integer;

begin

m:=c[l];

for k:=2 to n do

if m<c[k] then m:=c[k];

Max:=m;

end;

absolute , , , , , .

, :

function Max(pa:pointer; n:integer):integer;

var

m,k:integer;

pb:^integer;

begin

pb:=ptr((^) , ofs(^) ) ;

m:=b^;

for k:=2 to n do

begin

pb:=ptr(seg(^),ofs(^)+k*2);

if m < b^ then m:=b^;

end;

Max:=m;

end;

q :

max_q:=Max(&q,100);

. ptr, (seg) (ofs). , , a (seg(pb^)=seg(pa^)), ofs (^) 2*k.

, , . , 0. :

function Max(a:array of integer):integer;

var

m,k:integer;

begin

m:=a[0];

for k:=l to High(a) do

if m < a[k] then m:=a[k];

Max:=m; end;

High, . {$P+}.

, . -, . -, , .

. :

procedure sum+mat(var a,b,c; n:integer);

var

x:array [0..0] of integer absolute a;

y:array [0..0] of integer absolute b;

z:array [0..0] of integer absolute c;

j,k:integer;

begin {$R-}

for j :=0 to n-1 do

for k:=0 to n-1 do

z[j*n+k]:=x[j*n+k]+y[j*n+k];

{$R+} end;

, , . 0 0 .

:

procedure sum_mat(pa, pb, pc:pointer; n:integer);

var

a,b,:^integer;

j,k:integer;

begin

for j:=0 to n-1 do

for k:=0 to n-1 do

begin

a:=ptr(seg(^),ofs(^)+(j*n+k)*2) ;

b:=ptr(seg(pb^),ofs(b^)+(j*n+k)*2);

c:=ptr(seg(^),ofs(^)+(j*n+k)*2);

^:=^+b^;

end;

end;

-

. , . , .

, .

int Max(int *a, int n) {

int m, k;

m=a[0];

for(k=l; k<n; k++)

if (m < a[k]) m=a[k];

return m; }

, High . .

:

int Max(int *a, int n) {

int m,k;

m=*a;

for(k=l; k<n; k++)

if (m < *(a+k) m=*(a+k);

return m; }

:

void sum_mat(int *a, int *b, int *c, int n) {

int j,k,m;

for(j=0; j < n; j++)

for(k=0; k < n; k++) {

m=j*n+k;

* (c+m)=* (a+m) + *(b+m) ; } }


, , 90% . , 10% . .

, , . . . [12], . . " ", . 3.

(bubble)

, ( ) . . . .

(bubble1), , , . , .

i j .

bubble.bas

SUB BUBBLE(X(),N)

FOR 1=1 TO N-l

FOR J=N-1 TO I STEP -1

IF X(J-l) > X(J) THEN

TMP=X(J-1): X(J-l) =X(J): X(J)=TMP

END IF

NEXT J

NEXT I

END SUB

bubbiei.bas

SUB BUBBLE1(X(),N) M:Q=0

FOR 1=1 TO N-l

IF X(I-l) > X(I) THEN

TMP=X(I-1): X(I-1)=X(I): X(I)=TMP: Q=l

END IF

NEXT I

IF Q=l THEN GOTO *M

END SUB

bubble.

void bubble(int *x, int n) {

register int i,j;

int tmp;

for(i=l; i<n; i++)

for(j=n-l; j>=i; j)

if<x[j-l] > x[j])

{

tmp=x[j-1] ;

x[j-l] = x[j];

x[j ] = tmp; } }

bubblel.c

void bubblel(int *x, int n) {

register int i,j;

int tmp,q; m:q=0;

for(i=0; i<n-l; i++)

if(x[i] > x[i+l]) {

tmp=x[i];

x[i]=x[i+l];

x[i+l]=tmp;

q=l; }

if(q!=0) goto m; }

bubble.pas

procedure bubble(var x:array of integer;n:integer);

var

i,j,tmp:integer;

begin

for i:=l to n-1 do

for j:=n-l downto i do

if x[j]<x[j-l] then begin

tmp:=x[j-l]; x[j-l]:=x[j];

x[j]:=tmp;

end;

end;

bubblel.pas

procedure bubblel(var x:array of integer;n:integer);

label m;

var

i,tmp,q:integer;

begin m:q:=0

for i:=0 to n-2 do

if x[i] > x[i+l] then begin

tmp:=x[i];

x[i]:=x[i+l];

x [i+1] :=tmp;

q:=l; end;

if q=l then goto m;

end;

(select)

. . , , . .

select.bas

SUB SELECT(X(),N)

FOR I=0 TO N-2

Q=0: K=I: TMP=X(I)

FOR J=I+1 TO N-l

IF X(J)<TMP THEN K=J: TMP=X(J): Q=l NEXT J

IF Q=l THEN X(K)=X(I): X(I)=TMP NEXT I

END SUB

select.

void select(int *x, int n) {

register int i,j,k;

int q,tmp;

for(i=0; i<n-l; i++) {

q=0;

k=i;

tmp=x[ i ] ;

for(j=i+l; j<n; j++) {

if(x[j] < tmp) {

k=j;

tmp=x[ j ] ;

q=l; } } if (q)

{x[k]=x[i];

x[i]=tmp;} } }

select.pas

procedure select(var x:array of integer;n:integer);

var

i,j,k,q,tmp:integer;

begin

for i:=0 to n-2 do begin

q:=0;

k:=i;

tmp:=x[i];

for j:=i+l to n-1 do

if x[j]<tmp then begin

k:=j;

tmp:=x[j];

q:=l;

end;

if q=l then begin

x[k]:=x[i];

x[i]:=tmp;

end;

end;

end;

(insert)

. . . , . , n-1 . .

insert.bas

SUB INSERT(X%(),N%) DIM I,J,TMP

FOR I=1 TO N-l TMP=X(I)

FOR J=I-1 TO 0 STEP -1

IF TMP > X(J) THEN EXIT FOR

X(J+1)=X(J)

NEXT X(J+1)=TMP

NEXT I

END SUB

insert.c

void insert(int *x,int n) {

register int i,j; int trnp;

for(i=l; i<n; i++) {

tmp=x[ i ] ;

for(j=i-l;j>=0 && tmp < x[j]; j--)

x[j+l]=x[j];

x[j+l]=tmp;

} }

insert.pas

procedure insert(var x:array of integer;n:integer);

var

i,j,tmp:integer;

begin

for i:=l to n-1 do

begin

tmp:=x[i];

j:=i-l;

while (j>=0) and (tmp<x[j]> do

begin .

x[j+l]:=x[j]; j:=j-l;

end;

x [ j+1] :=tmp;

end;

end;

(shell)

. . , 1959 ., . , , . , , . , , . . 9>5>3>2>1.

shell.bas

SUB SHELLSORT (X%"() , N% )

DIM I, J,GAP,K,XX,A(5) A(0)=9: A(l)=5: A(2)=3: A(3)=2: A(4)=l

FOR K=0 TO 4 GAP=A(K)

FOR I=GAP TO N-1 XX=X(I)

FOR J=I-GAP TO 0 STEP -GAP

IF XX >= X(J) THEN EXIT FOR

X(J+GAP)=X(J)

NEXT J X(J+GAP)=XX

NEXT I

NEXT

END SUB

shell.

void shell(int *x,int n) {

register int i,j,gap,k; int xx;

char a[5]={9,5,3,2,l};

for(k=0; k<5; k++) {

gap=a[k];

for(i=gap; i<n; ++i) {

xx=x[i];

for(j=i-gap; xx < x[j] && j >= 0; j=j-gap)

x[j+gap]=x[j); x[j+gap]=xx; } } }

shell.pas

procedure shell(var x:array of integer;n:integer) ;

var

i,j,k,gap,xx:integer;

const

a:array [0..4] of byte=(9,5,3,2,1};

begin

for k:=0 to 4 do

begin

gap:=a[k];

for i:=gap to n-1 do begin

xx:=x[i];

j:=i-gap;

while (j >= 0) and (xx < x[j]) do

begin

x[j+gap]:=x[j];

j:=j-gap;

end;

x[j+gap]:=xx;

end;

end;

end;

(quicksort)

. . . , 1962 ., " ". , . , , , . , . , " ".

. - ( ). ( , ), , , , , , . , , , , . , , .

. . , . hoar, , quick. , left right.

hoare.bas

SUB HOARE(X% (),N%)

QUICK X%(),0,N%-1

END SUB

SUB QUICK(X%(),LEFT%,RIGHT%)

DIM I,J,XX,YY

I=LEFT%: J=RIGHT%

XX=X((LEFT%+RIGHT%)\2)

DO

WHILE X%(I) < XX AND I < RIGHT%: I=I+1: WEND

WHILE XX < X%(J) AND J > LEFT%: J=J-1: WEND

IF I <= J THEN

YY=X%(I): X%(I)=X%(J): X%(J)=YY: 1=1+1: J=J-1

END IF

LOOP WHILE I <= J

IF LEFT% < J THEN QUICK X%(),LEFT%,J

IF I < RIGHT% THEN QUICK X%(),I,RIGHT%

END SUB

hoare.c

void hoare(int *x,int n) {

quick(x,0,n-1);

return;

}

/*--------------------------------*/

void quick(int *x, int left, int right) {

register int i,j;

int xx,tmp;

i=left;

j=right;

xx=x[(left+right)/2];

do

{

while (x[i] < xx && i < right) i++;

while (xx < x[j] && j > left) j--;

if (i<=j)

{

tmp=x[ i ] ;

x[i]=x[j];

x[j]=tmp;

i++; j-- ;

}

}

while(i<=j);

if(left < j) quick(x,left,j);

if(i < right) quick(x,i,right);

}

hoare.pas

procedure quick(var x:array of integer;left,right:integer);

var

i,j,xx,tmp:integer;

begin

i:=left; j:=right;

xx:=x[(left+right) div 2];

repeat

while (x[i] < xx) and (i < right) do i:=i+l;

while (xx < x[j]) and (j > left) do j:=j-l;

if i<=j then

begin

tmp:=x[i];

x[i]:=x [j];

x[j]:=tmp;

i:=i+l;

j:=j-i;

end;

until i>j;

if left < j then quick(x,left,j);

if i < right then quick(x,i,right);

end;

procedure hoare(var x:array of integer;n:integer);

begin

quick(x,0,n-l);

end;


. . . , .

. , (, , ), , q. () j (a[j] = q).


, . , q = [ 1 ]. . /2.

:

, . . . , ( S2 S4), . , . . - 1520%.

, , q. , [ j ], q, j < n + 1 . , , j n + l. .

, , , . , (j 1 n), (j n i) . LOOP, 1 . , 0. , (j < n + 1) .

, 1, .

ssearch.bas

FUNCTION SSEARCH(Q,A(),N)

FOR J=0 TO N-l

IF Q=A(J) THEN SSEARCH=J: EXIT FUNCTION

NEXT J

SSEARCH=-1

END FUNCTION

ssearch.c

int ssearch(int q, int *a, int n)

}

register int j;

for(j=0; j<n; j++)

if(q==a[j]) return j;

return -1;

}

ssearch.pas

function ssearch(q:integer;a:array of integer;n:integer):integer;

var

j:integer; begin

for j:=0 to n-1 do

if q=a[j] then

begin

ssearch:=j;

exit;

end;

ssearch:=-l;

end;


, , . , , .

, g [[1],[n]]. left right , . left = 1 right = n. q a [mid] (mid = (left + right)/2). q a [mid], mid - 1. q a [mid], mid + 1. , q = a [mid], .

, left right. , (right = left + l) :

a[left] < q < a[right]

, q .

bsearch.bas

FUNCTION BSEARCH(Q,A() ,N) LEFT=0: RIGHT=N-1

WHILE LEFT <= RIGHT

MIDDLE=(LEFT+RIGHT)\2

IF Q < A(MIDDLE) THEN RIGHT=MIDDLE-1: GOTO M

IF Q > A(MIDDLE) THEN LEFT=MIDDLE+1: GOTO M

BSERACH=MIDDLE : EXIT FUNCTION M:WEND

BSEARCH=-1 END FUNCTION

bsearch.c

int bsearch(int q,int *a,int n)

{

register int left,right,mid;

left=0; right=n-l;

for(;left <= right;)

{

mid=(left+right)12;

if(q < a[mid]) right=mid-l;

else if(q > a[mid]) left=mid+l;

else

return mid; }

return -1; }

bsearch.pas

function bsearch(q:integer;a:array of integer;n:integer):integer;

var

left,right,mid:integer;

begin

left:=0; right:=n-l;

until left <= right do

begin

mid:=(left+right) div 2;

if q < a[mid] then right=mid-l

else if q > a[mid] then left=mid+l

else

begin

bsearch:=mid;

exit;

end;

end;

bsearch:=-l;

end;

[O,N]. , , :

. , , . . N/2. , , . log2N .

[0,100], 7 . Y ( ) , .

4_02.bas

' [0,100]

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

LEFT=0: RIGHT=100:

DO

MIDDLE=(LEFT+RIGHT)\2

PRINT " , "; MIDDLE; " (Y/N) - ";

INPUT "",A$

IF RIGHT-LEFT <= 1 THEN

IF A$="Y" OR A$="y" THEN

PRINT " ";RIGHT: END

ELSE

PRINT " ";LEFT: END

END IF

END IF

IF A$="Y" OR A$="y" THEN LEFT=MIDDLE+1 ELSE RIGHT=MIDDLE

LOOP

END

4_02.

/* [0,100] */

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

main ()

{

int left=0, right=100, middle, ok;

char ch;

clrscr();

for (;;)

{

middle={left+right)/2;

printf("\n , % d (Y/N) - ", middle);

ch=getche();

if(right-left <= 1)

if (ch=='Y' || ch == 'y') { ok=right; break; }

else { ok=left; break;}

if(ch=='Y' II ch== 'y') left=middle+l;

else right=middle; }

printf("\ %d",ok); getch(); }

4_02.pas

{ [0,100] }

uses Crt;

var

ch: char;

left, right, middle, ok: byte;

begin

left:=0;

right:=100;

clrscr;

repeat

middle := (left + right) div 2;

write(' , ',middle,' (Y/N) - ');

ch:=readkey;

writeln(ch);

if (right-left <= 1) then

if (ch='Y') or (ch = 'y') then begin ok:=right;

break;

end else begin ok:=left;

break;

end; if(ch='Y') or (ch='y') then left := middle + 1

else right := middle;

until false;

writeln(' ',ok);

readln;

end.

,

4.03.

, , . . .

1 ()

, . /2 (n ), . , , , .

4_03.bas

DECLARE SUB INVERT (A%(), N%)

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

N = 20

DIM A(N)

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 N-l: A(I)=I+1: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I

PRINT

INVERT A(), N

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 N-l: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I

END

SUB INVERT (A%(), N%)

DEFINT A-Z

FOR I = 0 TO (N-l)\2

TMP = A(I): A(I) = A(N-I-l): A(N-I-1) = TMP

NEXT I

END SUB

4_03.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void invert(int *a, int n) ;

void main(void)

{

#define N 20

int i,a[N];

clrscr ();

printf(" :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; i++)

fa[i]=i+l; printf("%3d",a[i]); }

invert(a,N);

printf("\n :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; i++)

printf("%3d",a[i]);

getch(); } void invert(int *a, int n)

int j,tmp;

for(j=0; j < n/2; j++)

{ tmp=a[j];

a[j]=a[n-j-1];

a[n-j-l]=tmp; } }

. .

1 ()

"" ( . / . . .: , 1990). . . . , .

, , . , . , () .

i (i < i < k), :

1- k, 2- k-l,

k- 1.

, , k+l. 1- k-i+1. +1. , i (n+l) - (k-i+l)=n-k+i. :

1- n-k+l, 2- n-k+2,

k- n-k+k.

, , .

1- (k + i < i < n). :

k+l , k+2 n-1,

k+l.

, , n+k+i. 1- -

n+k+l-i. , n+1, :

k+l, n, (n+l)-n=l;

k+2, -1, (n+1)-(n-1)=2;

, k+l, (n+l)-(k+l)=n-k.

, , , .

2 ()

invert, , , . j, , len , .

4_04.bas

DECLARE SUB INVERT1 (A%(), J%, N%)

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

N=20: K=15

DIM A(N)

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 TO N-l: A(I)=I+1: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I

PRINT

INVERT1 A(),0,K

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 N-l: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I: PRINT

INVERT1 A(),K,N-K

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 N-l: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I: PRINT

INVERT1 A(),0,N

PRINT " :"

FOR I=0 TO N-l: PRINT A(I); : NEXT I

END

SUB INVERT1 (A%(), J%, N%)

DEFINT A-Z

FOR I = J TO J+(N-1)\2

TMP=A(I): A(I)=A(2*J+N-1-I): A(2*J+N-l-I)=TMP

NEXT I

END SUB

4_04.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void invertl(int *a, int j , int k) ;

void main(void) {

#define N 20

#define 15

int i,a[N];

clrscr () ;

printf(" :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; 1++)

{

a[i] = 1 + 1;

printf("%3d",a[i]); }

invertl(a,0,K);

printf("\n :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; i++)

printf("%3d",a[i]);

invertl(a,K,N-K);

printf("\n :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; i++)

printf("%3d",a[i]);

invertl(a,0,K);

printf("\n :\n");

for(i=0; i < N; i++)

printf("%3d",a[i]);

getch(); }

void invertl(int *a, int j, int k) {

int m,tmp;

for(m=j; m < j+k/2; m++)

{

tmp=a[m]; a[m] = a[2*j+k-m-1];

a[2*j+k-m-l]=tmp; }

}

4_04,pas

program pearl; uses crt; const

N=20; K=15; var

a:array [1..N] of integer;

i:integer;

procedure invertl(var a; j,k:integer);

var

m,tmp:integer;

aa:array [1..1] of integer absolute a;

begin {$R-}

for m:=j to j + k div 2 do begin

tmp:=aa[m];

aa[m]:=aa[2*j+k-m-1];

aa[2*j+k-m-l]:=tmp;

end;

{$R+} end;

begin clrscr;

writeln(' : ') ;

for i:=l to N do

begin a[i]:=i;

write(a[i]:3);

end;

writeln;

invertl(a,1,K);

writeln(' :');

for i:=l to N do

write(a[i]:3);

writeln;

invertl(a,K+l,N-K);

writeln(' :');

for i:=l to N do write(a[i]:3);

writeln; invertl(a,l,N);

writeln(' :');

for i:=l to N do

write(a[i]:3);

readln;

end.

4.05.

() m x n (w) (row , col , ). , .

1 ()

window, . , . . , , , . , , (. gettextinf ), QBasic . . , . LOCATE (QBasic) gotoxy (, ).

2 (QBasic)

, , PRINT USING. , , w "I".

3 ()

, , "%wd". w, w+48, 48 "0".

4 ()

write , ( w).

4_05.bas

DECLARE SUB PRINTA (ROW%, COL%, W%, C% (-) , N%, M%)

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

DIM A(2, 3) , B(3, 3)

FOR J = 0 2: FOR = 0 TO 3

A(J, K) = J + * NEXT : NEXT J PRINTA 5, 5, 3, A() , 3, 4

FOR J = 0 TO 3: FOR = 0 3

B(J, K) = J * 10 + * 25 NEXT K: NEXT J PRINTA 5, 40, 5, B() , 4, 4

END

SUB PRINTA (ROW%, COL%, W%, C%(), N%, M%) DEFINT A-Z

F$ = LEFT$("##########", W)

FOR J = 0 TO N - 1: FOR = 0 TO M - 1

LOCATE ROW + J, COL + K*W

PRINT USING F$; C(J, K) NEXT K: NEXT J

END SUB

4_05.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void printa(int row,int col,int w,int *c,int n,int m) ;

void main(void) {

int a[3] [4] = {{!,2,3,4),{10,20,30,40},{100,200, 300, 400}};

int b[4][4]={{l,2,3,4},{5,6,7,8},{9,10,ll,12},{13,14,15,16}};

clrscr();

printa (5,5,4, (int *)a,3,4);

printa(5,40,5,(int *)b,4,4);

getch(); }

void printa(int row,int col,int w,int *c,int n,int m) {

int j,k;

char f[4]="%0d";

f[1] += w;

for(j=0; j<n; j++)

for(k=0; k<m; k++)

{

gotoxy(col+k*w,row+j);

printf(f,c[k+j*m]); }

}

4_05.pas

program mat_print;

uses crt;

const

a:array [1..3,1..4] of integer = ((1,2,3,4), (10,20,30,40), (100,200,300,400));

b:array [1..4,1..4] of integer = ((1,2,3,4), (5,6,7,8), (9,10,11,12), (13,14,15,16));

procedure printa(row,col,w:integer,-var ;n,m:integer);

var

j,k:integer;

d:array [0..MaxInt-l] of integer absolute c;

begin

for j:=0 to n-1 do

for k:=0 to m-1 do

begin

gotoxy(col+k*w,row+j); write(d[k+m*j]:w);

end;

end;

begin clrscr;

printa(5, 5, 4, a, 3, 4);

printa(5, 40, 5, b, 4, 4);

readln;

end.

4.06.

, . , , . . , . . , , , , . , , . "" , . .

, "". , . . () 90 () . 8x8, a[i,j] 8 :

1. a[i-2,j-1] 5. a[i+l,j-2]

2. a[i-2,j+l] 6. a[i+l,j+2]

3. a[i-l,j-2] 7. a[i+2,j-1]

4. a [i-1,j+2] 8. a[i + 2,j + 1]

- - . , 2, .

, a[i1,j1] a[i2,j2], . - , 1, , . a[i1,j1] 0 , . 1. , , , 2. , , , . . . , , 3. , , .

, [12, j2]. , , , a [i1, j1] .

, b[i2,j2]. n- , a[i1, j1] [i2, j2], . , ,

a[i,j] + b[i,j] = n.

, a [i, j ] . , , , .

, , , .

1 ()

, k-ro . newlevel , , (k+l)-ro , , .

4_06.bas

DIM A(8,8)

FOR I=0 7 : FOR J=0 TO 7

A(I,J)=-l NEXT J: NEXT I

CLS : INPUT " :",I,J A(I,J)=0 : K=0 M:NEWLEVEL

IF XOD = 1 THEN GOTO M

FOR I=0 TO 7 : FOR J=0 TO 7

PRINT A(I,J) NEXT J: PRINT : NEXT I END

SUB NEWLEVEL XOD=0

FOR I=0 TO 7 : FOR J=0 TO 7

IF A(I,J)=K THEN

TRY(I-2,J-l): TRY(I-2,J+1)

TRY(I-1,J-2): TRY(I-l,J+2)

TRY(I+1,J-2): TRY(I+1,J+2)

TRY(I+2,J-l): TRY(I+2,J+1)

END IF NEXT J: NEXT I

K=K+1

END SUB

SUB TRY(P,Q)

IF P>=0 AND P<8 AND Q>=0 AND Q<8 AND A(P,Q)<0 THEN A(P,Q)=K+1 : XOD=1

END IF

END SUB

4_06.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

char newlevel(void);

void try(int p,int q);

char a[8][8],i,j,k=0,xod;

void main(void) {

clrscr();

for(i=0; i<8; i++)

for(j=0; j<8; j++)

a[i][j]=-l;

puts(" :");

scanf("%d %d",&i,&j);

a[i][j]=0; m:newlevel();

if(xod==l) goto m;

for(i=0; i<8; i++) {

for(j=0; j<8; j++)

printf("%3d",a[i] [j]) = 1;

printf("\n");

}

getch(); )

char newlevel(void) {

char di[8]={-2,-2,-l,-l, 1,1, 2,2};

char dj[8]={-l, l,-2, 2,-2,2,-1,1};

char f;

xod=0;

for(i=0; i<8; i++)

for(j=0; j<8; j++)

if (a[i] [j]==k)

for(f=0; f<8; f++)

try(i+di[f],j+dj[f]);

k++;

return xod; }

void tryfint p,int q) {

if(p>=0 && p<8 && q>=0 && q<8 && a[p][q]<0)

{ a[p][q]=k+l;

xod=l;} }

4_06.pas

program horst;

{=======================================

.

0 7. , , 0. , , 1, - 2 . .

=====================================}

uses Crt;

label m;

var

i,j,k,xod:byte;

a:array [0..7,0..7] of shortint;

procedure try(p,q:integer);

{=================================

k+1 (p,q). [,q] , xod - 1. xod 0.

==================================}

begin

if (p>=0) and (p<8) and (q>=0) and (q<8) and (a[p,q]<0) then

begin a[p,q]:=k+l; xod:=l; end; end;

procedure newlevel;

{================================

k+1 , k

================================}

const

{ i,j 8 }

di:array [0..7] of integer = (-2,-2,-1,-1, 1,1, 2,2);

dj:array [0..7] of integer = (-1, l,-2, 2,-2,2,-1,1); var

f:byte; begin

xod:=0; { }

{ , k- )

for i:=0 to 7 do

for j:=0 to 7 do

if a[i,j]=k then

{ , 8 }

for f:=0 to 7 do try(i+di[f],j+dj[f]);

k:=k+l;

{ }

end;

begin

k:=0; { } clrscr;

for i:=0 to 7 do

for j:=0 to 7 do

a[i,j]:=-1; { }

write(' : '};

readln(i,j);

a[i,j]:=0; ( )

m: newlevel;

{ }

if xod=l then goto m; { } { }

for i:=0 to 7 do

begin

for j:=0 to 7 do

write (a[i,j]:3);

writeln;

end;

readln;

end.

4.07.

, . , , 15 000 . , . . randomize. , .

1 ()

( = 20) ( = 15 000, QBasic = 5000). , . . , .

2 ()

, . .

4_07.bas

DECLARE SUB BUBBLE(X%(),N%)

DECLARE SUB INSERT(X%(),N%)

DECLARE SUB SELECT1(X%(},N%)

DECLARE SUB SHELLSORT(X%(),N%)

DECLARE SUB HOARE(X%(),N%)

DECLARE SUB QUICK(X%(),LEFT%,RIGHT%)

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

CONST N=5000

DIM A(N)

FOR J=0 TO N

A(J)=INT(N*RND) 'PRINT USING "#### "; A(J); NEXT J

PRINT T1#=TIMER BUBBLE A() , N ' INSERT A (),N 'SELECT1 A(),N 'SHELLSORT A(),N 'HOARE A{},N T2#=TIMER

PRINT T2#-T1#; ""

'FOR J=0 TO N: PRINT USING "#### ";A(J); : NEXT J END

REM

4_07.

#include <iostream.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include <dos.h>

#define MAX 15000

void bubble(int *x, int n) ;

void select(int *x, int n) ;

void insert(int *x, int n);

void shell(int *x, int n);

void hoare(int *x, int n);

void quick(int *x, int left, int right);

main( ) {

int num[MAX];

int i ;

struct time w;

clrscr();

//cout << " " << endl;

for(i=0; i < MAX; i++) // {

num[i]=random(MAX);

// cout << num[i] << " ";}

// cout << endl; // getch();

// cout << " " « endl;

gettime (&w);

cout << (unsigned int)w.ti_sec <<".";

cout << (unsigned int)w.ti_hund << endl;

bubble(num,MAX);

//select(num,MAX);

//insert(num,MAX);

//shell(num,MAX);

//hoare(num,MAX);

gettime(&w);

cout << (unsigned int)w.ti_sec <<".";

cout << (unsigned int)w.ti_hund << endl;

//cout << "";

getch();

//for(i=0; i<MAX; i++)

//cout << num[i] << " ";

//getch();

return 0; }

/*==== ========*/

4_07.pas

program all_sort; uses crt,WinDos; const

MAX=15000; type

xarr=array [0..MAX-1] of integer; var

x:xarr;

i:integer;

hour,minute,second,sec100:word;

{===== ======}

begin

clrscr;

for i:=0 to MAX-1 do

begin

x[i]:=random(MAX); {write(x[i],' ');}

end;

writeln;

write(' - ');

gettime(hour,minute,second,sec100);

write(minute:2,' ',second:2,'.',sec100:2, ' ');

writeln;

{ }

{ bubble(x,MAX);}

{ select(x,MAX);}

{ insert(x,MAX);}

shell(x,MAX);

{ hoare(x,MAX);}

gettime(hour,minute,second,sec100};

write(' - ');

write(minute:2,' ',second:2,'.',seclOO:2,' ');

writeln;

{ for i:=0 to MAX-1 do write(x[i],' ');}

readln; end.

4.08.

"", . , 000000 999999, .

1 ()

" " , , . . , . 1000 , , 0, 1, 2.....27. , 000, 000000. , 1, 001, 010 100. , 9 ( ). , s [0], s [1].....S [27] , S, N :

N = S[0] * S[0] + S[l] * S[l] + ... + S[27] * S[27].

4_08.bas

DIM S(28)

FOR Al=0 TO 9: FOR A2=0 TO 9: FOR A3=0 TO 9

S(A1+A2+A3)=S(A1+A2+A3)+1 NEXT A3: NEXT A2: NEXT A1

FOR K=0 TO 27: N=N+S(K)*S(K) : NEXT

PRINT " = ";N

END

4_08.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

main()

{

int s[28],al,a2,a3,k;

long N;

clrscr();

for(k=0; k<28; k++)

s[k]=0;

for(al=0; al<10; al++)

for(a2=0; a2<10; a2++)

for(a3=0; <10; 3++)

s[al+a2+a3]++;

for(k=0,N=0; k<28; k++)

N += s[k] *s [k] ;

printf("\n = %ld",N);

getch(); }

4_08.pas

program lucky_ticket;

var

al,a2,a3,k:integer;

N:longint;

s:array [0..27] of integer;

begin

for al:=0 to 9 do

for a2:=0 to 9 do

for a3:=0 to 9 do

inc(s[al+a2+a3]);

for k:=0 to 27

N:=N+s [k] *s["k] ;

writeln(' = ',N);

readln;

end.

4.09.

, . , .

1 ()

( ) . . , sort , .

2 ()

. , . , k0 = 0, k0 = 1. , 1- . , i- . , k0.

3 ()

. [0,32767], 32 768 (4096 ). , . a[i] , 0, 1 . , .

4 ()

(b) , . calloc, . byte bit , a [i].

4_09a.bas

DECLARE SUB SORT (A() AS INTEGER, N%)

DECLARE FUNCTION DIFFERENCE% (A() AS INTEGER, N%)

DEFINT A-Z

DIM A(5)

DATA 0,0,0,0,0

DATA 1,1,1,1,1

DATA 0,1,1,1,1

DATA 0,0,1,1,2

DATA 0,1,2,3,4

DATA 1,2,3,4,5

CLS

FOR k=1 TO 5

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A(I): NEXT I

PRINT " ";k;" = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A(), 5} NEXT k END

FUNCTION DIFFERENCE (A() AS INTEGER, N%)

SORT A(),N%

M=l

FOR I=0 TO N%-2

IF A(I)<>A(I+1) THEN M=M+1

NEXT I

DIFFERENCE=M

END FUNCTION

SUB SORT(A() AS INTEGER,N%)

REM

END SUB

4_09b.bas

DECLARE SUB SORT (A() AS INTEGER, N%)

DECLARE FUNCTION DIFFERENCE% (A() AS INTEGER, N%)

DEFINT A-Z

DIM A0(5),A1{5),A2(5),A3(5},A4(5),A5(5)

DATA 0,0,0,0,0

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ 0(I): NEXT I

DATA 1,1,1,1,1

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A1(I): NEXT I

DATA 0, 1,1, 1, 1

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A2(I): NEXT I

DATA 0,0, 1, 1,2

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A3(I): NEXT I

DATA 0,1,2,3,4

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A4(I): NEXT I

DATA 1,2,3,4,5

FOR I=0 TO 4: READ A5(I): NEXT I

PRINT " 0 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(0(),5)

PRINT " 1 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A1(),5)

PRINT " 2 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A2(),5)

PRINT " A3 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A3() ,5)

PRINT " 4 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A4(),5)

PRINT " 5 = ";

PRINT DIFFERENCE(A5(), 5)

END

FUNCTION DIFFERENCE ( AS INTEGER-,N%) DEFINT A-Z

FOR I=0 TO N%-1

IF A(I)=0 THEN K0=l: EXIT FOR NEXT I

FOR I=0 TO N%-1 IF A(I)<>0 THEN

FOR J=I+1 TO N%-1

IF A(I)=A(J) THEN A(I)=0: EXIT FOR NEXT J END IF NEXT I

FOR I=0 TO N%-1

IF A(I)<>0 THEN M=M+1 NEXT I

DIFFERENCE=M+K0

END FUNCTION

4_09.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void sort(int *a,int n);

int difference(int *a,int n);

main() {

int a0[5]={0,0,0,0,0};

int a1[5]={l,l,l,l,l};

int a2[5]={0,l,l,l,l);

int a3[5]={0,0,l,l,2};

int a4[5]={0,l,2,3,4};

int a5[5]={l,2,3,4,5};

printf("\n ");

printf("%d",difference(a0,5));

getch(); }

void sort(int *a,int n) {

/* */

return; }

int difference(int *a, int n) {

int i,m;

sort(a,n);

for(i=0,m=l; i<n-l; i++)

if(a[i] != a[i+l]) m++;

return m; }

4_09b.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

int difference(int *a,int n);

main() {

int a0[5]={0,0,0,0,0};

int al[5] = {l,l,l,l,1};

int 2[5]={0,1,1,1,1};

int a3[5]={0,0,l,l,2};

int a4[5]={0,l,2,3,4};

int a5[5]={l,2,3,4,5};

printf("\n ");

printf("%d",difference(a0,5));

getch (); }

int difference(int *a,int n) {

int i,j,k0,m;

for(i=k0=0; i<n; i++)

if(a[i] == 0) { k0=1; break; }

for(i=0; i<n-l; i++)

{ if(a[i]==0) continue;

for(j=i+l; j<n; j++)

if(a[i]==a[j]) { a[i]=0; break; } }

for(i=m=0; i<n; i++)

if(a[i] !=0)m++;

return m+k0; }

4_09.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

#include <alloc.h>

int difference(int *a,int n);

main() {

int a0[5]={0,0,0,0,0};

int a1[5]={l,l,l,l,l};

int a2[5]={0,l,l,l,l};

int a3[5]={0,0,l,l,2);

int a4[5]={0,l,2,3,4);

int a5[5]={l,2,3,4,5};

printf("\n ");

printf("%d",difference(a5, 5)) ;

getch(); }

int difference(int *a, int n) {

char *b;

char mask[8]={128,64,32,16,8,4,2,1};

int bit,byte,i,m;

b=calloc(4096,1);

for(i=m=0; i<n; i++) {

byte = a[i]/8; bit = a[i]%8;

if ((b [byte] & mask [bit] )=0)

{ m++; b[byte] | = mask[bit]; } }

free(b); return m; }

4_09a.pas

program dif;

const

a0:array [0..4] of integer=(0,0,0,0, 0)

al:array [0..4] of integer=(l,1,1,1,1)

a2:array [0..4] of integer=(0,1,1,1,1)

a3:array [0..4] of integer=(0,0,1,1, 2)

a4:array [0..4] of integer=(0,1,2,3,4)

a5:array [0..4] of integer=(1,2, 3, 4, 5)

procedure sort(var a:array of integer);

begin end;

function difference(a:array of integer):integer;

var i,m: integer;

begin

sort(a);

m:=l;

for i:=0 to High(a)-1 do

if a[i] <> a[i+l] then inc(m);

difference:=m;

end;

begin

write(' ');

write(difference(a5));

readln; end.

4_09b.pas

program difl; const

a0:array [0..4J of integer=(0,0,0,0,0)

a1:array [0..4] of integer= (1,1,1,1,1)

a2:array [0..4] of integer=(0,1,1,1,1)

a3:array [0..4] of integer=(0,0,1,1,2)

a4:array [0..4] of integer=(0,1,2,3,4)

a5:array [0..4] of integer=(1,2,3,4,5)

function difference(a:array of integer):integer;

var

i,j,k0,m,n:integer;

begin

k0:=0; n:=High(a);

for i:=0 to n do

if a[i]=0 then begin k0:=l;

break;

end;

for i:=0 to n-1 do begin

if a[i]=0 then continue; for j:=i+l to n do

if a[i]=a[j] then begin a[i]:=0;

break; end; end ;

m:=0; for i:=0 to n do

if a[i]<>0 then inc(m);

difference:= m+k0;

end;

begin

write(' ');

write(difference(a5)};

readln;

end.

4.10. " "

.

1 ()

, , . , [0,35] ( [0,51]). (, , , , ) (, : 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, , , , ). , -, (, "6" , "104" , "" ).

2 ()

. . (i, j) i- j- . , 10 000 , " " .

3 ()

, , , i- "", .

4 ()

, ( randomize).

4_10.bas

DECLARE SUB MIXER(() AS INTEGER)

DEFINT A-Z

DIM A(36)

CLS

PRINT " :"

FOR K=0 TO 35: A(K)=K: PRINT USING "####";A(K); : NEXT

FOR J=0 TO 4

MIXER A()

PRINT " :"

FOR K=0 TO 35: PRINT USING "####";A(K); : NEXT NEXT J END

SUB MIXER(B() AS INTEGER) DEFINT A-Z

RANDOMIZE INT(32767*RND)

FOR J=0 TO 10000

I=INT(35*RND+.5)

TMP=B(0)

B(0)=B(I)

B(I)=TMP

NEXT J

END SUB

4_10.

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <conio.h>

void mixer(char *b);

main()

{

char j,k, a[36];

clrscr();

printf("\n :\n");

for (k=0; k<36; k++) {

a[k]=k;

printf("%4d",a[k]); }

for(j=0; j<5; j++) {

mixer(a);

printf("\n :\n");

for(k=0; k<36; k++)

printf("%4d",a[k]);

begin clrscr;

writeln(' :') ;

for k:=0 to 35 do begin

a[k]:=k; write(a[k]:4);

end;

writeln;

for j:=0 to 4 do begin

mixer(a);

writeln(' :');

for k:=0 to 35 do

write(a[k]:4);

writeln;

end;

readln;

end.

4.11.

:

1 ()

, 2 , , 0. , 0. . , ( ), , , , .

2 ()

:

3 ()

, . 3 5, [1,12]. ( ) ( ) , .

4_11.bas

DECLARE SUB USER()

DECLARE SUB START{)

DECLARE SUB COMPUTER()

DECLARE SUB PRINTXOD(col%,msg$)

DEFINT A-Z

DIM SHARED N

DIM SHARED AS INTEGER,S AS INTEGER,M AS INTEGER,Q AS INTEGER

N=5: Q=12

DIM SHARED A(N) AS INTEGER,I AS INTEGER,J AS INTEGER, AS INTEGER

M=l

START m1:

USER

COMPUTER

GOTO ml END

SUB COMPUTER S=0

FOR I=0 TO K-1: S=S XOR A(I): NEXT I

IF s=o THEN

J=0: S=A(0)

FOR I=1 TO K-1

IF S<A(I) THEN S=A(I): J=I

B=l

NEXT I ELSE

FOR J=0 TO K-1

B=A(J)-(A(J) XOR S)

IF B>=0 THEN EXIT FOR NEXT J END IF

A(J)=A(J)-B

PRINTXOD 4, " "

END SUB

SUB PRINTXOD(col%,msg$) COLOR col%, 0 FOR I=0 TO K-1

LOCATE M+l,3*I+1: PRINT USING "###";A(I)

NEXT I

M=M+1: IF M>23 THEN M=2: CLS: PRINTXOD col%, msg$'

S=0

FOR J=0 TO K-l: S=S+A(J): NEXT J

IF S<>0 THEN EXIT SUB LOCATE M,2: PRINT msg$ SLEEP STOP

END SUB

SUB START

CLS : RANDOMIZE (VAL(RIGHTS(TIME$, 2)))

K=INT(RND*(N-3))+3: '

FOR I=0 TO K-l

A(I)=INT(RND*Q)+1

NEXT I

LOCATE 1,2 : PRINT " "

PRINTXOD 4,"" END SUB

SUB USER COLOR 2,0

LOCATE M, 20

PRINT " ( - ):"

2:

LOCATE M, 33: PRINT ""

LOCATE M,33: INPUT J

IF (J<1) OR (J>K) OR (A(J-1)=0) THEN GOTO M2

m3:

LOCATE M, 35: PRINT "-"

LOCATE M, 37: INPUT

IF (B<1) OR (B>A(J-1J) THEN GOTO m3

A(J-1)=A(J-1)-B SLEEP

PRINTXOD 2, " "

END SUB

4_11.c

#include <stdio.h>

#include <stdlib.h>

#include <conio.h>

void print_xod(int color,char *msg);

void start(void);

void user(void);

void computer(void);

#define N 5

#define Q 12

int i,j,k,b,s,m=l;

int a[N];

main() {

start(); ml:

user () ;

computer() ;

goto ml; }

void start(void) {

clrscr();

randomize();

k=random(N-3)+3; /* */

for(i=0; i<k; i++)

a[i]=random(Q)+1;

print_xod(RED," "); }

void user(void) {

textcolor(GREEN);

gotoxy(20,m-l); cprintf(" ( - ):");

m2:

gotoxy(33,m);

cprintf(" ") ;

gotoxy(33,m);

scanf("%d",&j);

if((j<l) || (j>k) || (a[j-l]=0)) goto ra2;

m3:

gotoxy(35,m); cprintf("- ") ;

gotoxy(37,m); scanf("%d",&b);

if((b<l) || (b>a[j-l])) goto m3;

a[j-l]-=b;

print_xod(GREEN," ");

return; }

void computer(void) {

for(s=0, i=0; i<k; i++)

s ^= a[i];

if(s==0) {

for(i=l,j=0,s=a[0]; i<k; i++)

if(s<a[i]) {s=a[i]; j=i;} b=l; }

else

for(j=0; j<k; j++)

(b=a[j]-(a[j]"s);

if(b>=0) break;}

a[j]-=b;

print_xod(RED," ");

return; }

void print_xod(int color,char *msg) (

textcolor(color);

for(i=0; i<k; i++)

gotoxy(3*i+l,m) ;

cprintf("%3d",a[i]);}

m++;

if(m>23)

{

m=2;

clrscr();

print_xod( color, msg) ;

}

for(j=0,s=0; j<k; j++)

s+=a[j];

if(s!=0) return;

gotoxy(l,m);

cprintf("%s",msg);

getch();

exit(0); }

4_11.pas

program nim; uses Crt; const

n=5; q=12; var

i,j,k,b,s,m:integer; a:array [l..n] of byte; label ml;

procedure print_xod(color:integer);

begin textcolor(color);

for i:=l to k do begin

gotoxy(3*i,m);

write(a[i]:2);

end;

m:=m+l;

if m > 23 then begin clrscr;

m:= 2;

print_xod(color);

end;

end;

procedure start;

begin

clrscr; randomize;

k:=random(n-3)+3; { }

m:=1;

if m>23 then begin clrscr;

m:=2;

print_xod(color);

end;

for i:=l to k do

a[i]:=random(q)+1;

print_xod(RED);

end;

procedure user;

label m2,m3;

begin

textcolor (GREEN) ;

gotoxy(20,m-1);

write(' ( - ):');

m2:

gotoxy(33,m); write(' ');

gotoxy(33,m) ; read(j);

if(j<l) or (j>k) or (a[j]=0) then goto m2;

m3:

gotoxy(35,m);

write('- ');

gotoxy(37,m);

read(b);

if(b<l) or (b>a[j]) then goto m3;

a[j]:=a[j]-b;

print_xod(GREEN);

end;

procedure computer;

begin s:=0;

for i:=l to k do s:=s xor a[i];

if s=0 then begin s:=a[l];

j:=l;

for i:=2 to k do

if s<a[i] then begin

s:=a[i];

j:=i;

end;

b:=l;

end

else

for j:=l to k do begin b:=a[j]-(a[j] xor s) ;

if b>=0 then break; end;

a[j]:=a[j]-b;

print_xod(RED);

end;

begin

start;

ml : user;

s:=0;

for j:=l to k do s:=s+a[j];

if s=0 then begin

gotoxy(1,m);

write(' ');

readln; readln;

exit; end;

computer; s:=0;

for j:=l to k do s:=s+a[j];

if s<>0 then goto ml;

gotoxy(l,m);

write(' ');

readln;

readln;

end.

4.12. "-"

- 3x3. : , . , . , ( , , ). , , . , "" , , , . .

:

:

1 ()

"-" , , . .

. , . , 5 ( ) 3 ( ) .

, . 1 9 :

() () :

, .

.

1 8 :

lines, .

. , . , a[j]. show(j, k), k [ j ] ( k +2 -2, , ). , . . .

. input ( QBasicUSER, . . INPUT ). . <Enter>. . ( beep 7).

( , ). show (5, 2).

. j (j = l, 2, 3, 4, , 7, 8 9), b [ j ].

. step345, :

. a[j], , . 4, . , . xod(k1 = 2, k2 = 2). , [ j ] 2*k1, , , "" k2. xod "", .

. , , -4, , . , . xod, k1 = -2 k2 = 2. , xod "".

. , lines. , .

. . [ j ]. , , , (+2), , (-2). ( ) 18. , , .

2 (QBasic)

LOCATE. -, , gotoxy, ( , ). -, , , . , , .

3 (, )

(window). (0, 0), .

4_12.bas

DECLARE SUB STEP345()

DECLARE SUB RESULT(s$)

DECLARE SUB CURIND(cur%,porog%,dcur%,dind%)

DECLARE SUB SHOW(k%,c%)

DECLARE SUB USER()

lines, .

. , . , a[j]. show(j, k), k [ j ] ( k +2 -2, , ). , . . .

. input ( QBasic USER, . . INPUT ). . <Enter>. . ( beep 7).

( , ). show(5, 2).

. j (j =l, 2, 3, 4, , 7, 8 9), b [ j ].

. step345, :

. a[j], , . 4, . , . xod(k1 = 2, k2 = 2). , [ j ] 2*k1, , , "" k2. xod "", .

. , , -4, , . , . xod, kl = -2 k2 = 2. , xod "".

. , lines. , .

. . [ j ]. , , , (+2), , (-2). ( ) 18. , ., .

2 (QBasic)

LOCATE. -, , gotoxy, ( , ). -, , , . , , .

3 (, )

(window). (, ), .

4_12.bas

DECLARE SUB STEP3450

DECLARE SUB RESULT(s$)

DECLARE SUB CURIND(cur%,porog%,dcur%,dind%)

DECLARE SUB SHOW(k%,c%)

DECLARE SUB USER()

DECLARE FUNCTION XOD!(k%,kl%)

DEFINT A-Z

DIM SHARED POS1(1 TO 18) AS INTEGER,lines(0 TO 23) AS INTEGER

DIM SHARED A(l TO 9) AS INTEGER,b(l TO 9) AS INTEGER

DIM SHARED x0 AS INTEGER,0 AS INTEGER

DIM SHARED Ind AS INTEGER,CurX AS INTEGER,CurY AS INTEGER

FOR k=l TO 9: A(k)=0: NEXT k

DATA 3,1,1,1,5,3,1,7,3

FOR k=l TO 9: READ b(k): NEXT k x0=l: y0=l

DATA 3,2, 7, 2, 11, 2, 3,4,

7, 4, 11, 4,3, 6, 7, 6, 11, 6

FOR k=l TO 18: READ POSl(k): NEXT k

DATA 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,1,4,7,

2,5,8,3,6,9,1,5,9,3,5,7

FOR k=0 TO 23: READ lines(k): NEXT k

CLS

SHOW 5,2 '

USER ' 1-

FOR J=l TO 9 '

IF A(J)=-2 THEN SHOW b(J),2: EXIT FOR NEXT J

m2: USER '

STEP345 '

GOTO m2 END

DEFSNG A-Z

SUB CURIND(cur%,porog%,dcur%,dind%)

IF curoporog THEN cur=cur+dcur: Ind=Ind+dind END SUB

DEFSNG A-Z SUB RESULT(s$)

LOCATE 1,40: PRINT s$: END END SUB

DEFINT A-Z

SUB SHOW(k%,C%) DEFINT A-Z CLS

LOCATE x0,y0: PRINT "+-------------------+"

LOCATE x0+l,y0: PRINT "| | | |"

LOCATE x0+2, y0: PRINT " |-----|-----|-----| "

LOCATE x0+3,y0: PRINT "| | | |"

LOCATE x0+4,y0: PRINT "|-----|-----|-----|"

LOCATE x0+5,y0: PRINT "| | | |"

LOCATE x0+6,y0: PRINT "+-----+-----+-----+"

A(k%)=c% FOR J=l TO 9

LOCATE y0-l+POSl(J*2),x0-1+POSl(J*2-l)

IF A(J)=2 THEN PRINT "X"

IF A(J)=-2 THEN PRINT "0" NEXT J

CurX=xO+6: CurY=y0+3: Ind=5 LOCATE CurY,CurX,l END SUB

SUB STEPS45 DEFINT A-Z

IF XOD(2,2)=1 THEN RESULT " ": END

IF XOD(-2,2)=1 THEN EXIT SUB

FOR J=l TO 9

IF A(J)=0 THEN SHOW J,2: EXIT FOR

NEXT J END SUB

DEFSNG A-Z

SUB USER

DEFINT A-Z

Left=75: Right=77: Up=72: Down=80: Enter=13 k=0:

FOR J=l TO 9: k=k+ABS(A(J)): NEXT J IF k=18 THEN RESULT " ": END

m: ch$=INKEY$:

IF LEN(ch$)=0 THEN GOTO m

SELECT CASE ASC(RIGHTS(ch$,1))

CASE Left: CURIND CurX,3,-4,-l

CASE Right: CURIND CurX,ll,4/l

CASE Up: CURIND CurY,2,-2,-3

CASE Down: CURIND CurY,6,2,3

CASE Enter:

IF A(Ind)=0 THEN SHOW Ind,-2:

EXIT SUB

CASE ELSE: BEEP END SELECT

LOCATE y0-l+CurY,x0-l+CurX,l USER END SUB

DEFINT A-Z FUNCTION XOD(k%,kl%)

DIM J AS INTEGER,m AS INTEGER,p AS INTEGER XOD=0

FOR J=0 TO 7 m=J*3

IF A(lines(m))+A(lines(m+1))+A(lines(m+2))=2*k% THEN XOD=1

FOR p=m TO m+2

IF A(lines(p))=0 THEN SHOW lines(p),kl% EXIT FUNCTION END IF NEXT p

END IF NEXT J END FUNCTION

4_12.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void input(void);

void cur_ind(int *cur,int porog,int dcur,int dind);

void step345(void);

int xod(int k, int kl);

void showfint k, int c);

void result(char *s);

int a[9]={0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0}, b[9]={3,l,l,l,5,3,l,7,3},

0=1, 0=1, j, CurX, CurY, Ind; main()

{

clrscr();

window(x0,y0,x0+13,y0+7);

show(5,2); /* */

input(); /* 1- */

for(j=0; j<9; j++) /* */

if (a[j]==-2) { show(b[j],2); break; }

m2:

input(); . /* */

step345(); /* */

goto m2;

}

/*--------------------------------*/

void result(char *s) {

window(40,l,60,2);

puts(s);

getch () ;

exit(0);

}

/*-------------------------------*/

void show(int k,int c) {

char pos[18]=(3,2,7,2,11,2,3,4,7,4,11,4,3,6,7,6,11,6};

char j;

clrscr ();

printf("+-----------+\n");

printf("| | | |\n");

printf ( "|----|----|----| \n") ;

printf("| | | |\n");

printf (" |----|----|----| \n"} ;

printf("| | | |\n");

printf ("+----------------+") ;

a[k-l]=c;

for(j=0; j<9; j++) {

gotoxy(x0-l+pos[j*2],y0-l+pos[j*2+l]);

if(a[j]==+2) printf("X");

if(a[j]==-2) printf("0"); }

CurX=x0+6; CurY=y0+3; Ind=5; gotoxy(CurX,CurY);

}

/*-------------------------------*/

int xod(int k, int k1) {

char line[24]={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,1,

4,7,2,5,8,3,6,9,1,5,9,3,5,7},

j,m,p;

for(j=0; j<8; j++)

{

m=j*3;

if(a[line[m]-1)+a[line[m+1]-1]+a[line[m+2]-1]==2*k)

{

printf ("\nm=%d",m) ; for(p=m; p<m+3; p++)

if(a[line[p]-l]==0) {

show(line[p],kl); return 1; } } } return 0;

}

/*-------------------------------------* /

void step345(void)

{

if(xod( 2,2)) result(" ");

if(xod(-2,2)) return;

for(j=0; j<9; j++)

if(a[j]==0) {

show(j+l,2); break;

} }

/*----------------------------*/

void cur_ind(int *cur, int porog, int dcur, int dind) {

if( *cur != porog) {

*cur += dcur;

Ind += dind; }

}

/*----------------------------*/

void input(void) {

int ch, j, k;

for(k=0, j=0; j<9; j++) k+=abs(a[j]);

if(k==18) result(" ");

ch=getch(); if(ch==0) ch=getch();

switch (ch)

{

case 75: cur_ind(&CurX, 3,-4,-l);break; /*Left*/

case 77: cur_ind(&CurX,11, 4, 1); break; /*Right*/

case 72: cur_ind(&CurY, 2,-2,-3); break; /*Up*/

case 80: cur_ind(&CurY, 6, 2, 3); break; /*Down*/ case 13:

printf("\nInd=%d",Ind); /*Enter*/

if(a[Ind-l]==0)

{ show(Ind,-2); return;}

else

printf("%c",0x7);

break;

default: printf("%c",0x7); }

gotoxy(x0-l+CurX,y0-l+CurY);

input(); }

4_12.pas

program krestiki;

uses Crt;

label m2;

const

a-.array [1..9] of integer = (0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0,0);

b:array [1..9] of byte = (3,1,1,1,5,3,1,7,3);

x0=5; y0=5;

var

j, CurX, CurY, Ind : word; procedure result(s:string);

begin

window(40,1,60,2);

write(s);

readln; halt; end;

procedure show(k,:integer) ;

const

pos:array [1..18] of byte = (3,2,7,2,11,2,3,4,7,4,11,4,3,6,7,6,11,6);

var

j:byte;

x,:word;

begin

clrscr;

writeln (' +----+----+----+')

writeln('| | | |')

writeln (' |----|----|----| ')

writeln('| | | |')

writeln(' |----|-----|-----|')

writeln('| | | |')

write (' +----+----+----+')

a[k]:=c;

for j:=1 to 9 do begin

x:=pos[(j-l)*2+l]; y:=pos[(j-1)*2+2];

gotoxy(x,y);

if a[j]=+2 then write('X');

if a[j]=-2 then write('0');

end;

CurX:=7; CurY:=4; Ind:=5;

gotoxy(CurX,CurY); end;

function xod(k,kl:integer):boolean;

const

line:array [0..23] of byte=

(1, 2, 3,4, 5, , 7, 8, 9,1,4, 7, 2, 5, 8, 3,6, 9,1,5, 9, 3,5,7) ;

var

j,m,p:byte; begin

xod:=false; for j:=0 to 7 do begin m:=j*3;

if a[line[m]]+a[line[m+1]]+a[line[m+2]]=2*k then begin

xod:=true;

for p:=m to m+2 do

if a[line[p]]=0 then

begin

show(line[p],kl);

exit;

end;

end;

end;

end;

procedure step345; begin

if xod( 2,2) then result(' ');

if xod(-2,2) then exit;

for j :=1 to 9 do if a[j]=0 then begin

show(j,2);

break;

end;

end;

procedure input; const

Left=#75;

Right=#77;

Up=#72;

Down=#80;

Enter=#13; var

ch:char;

j,k:byte;

procedure cur_ind(var cur:word;porog,dcur,dind:integer) ;

begin

if cur <> porog then begin

cur:=cur+dcur;

Ind:=Ind+dind; end;

end; begin

k:=0;

for j:=l to 9 do

k:=k+abs(a[j]);

if k=18 then result(' ');

ch:=readkey;

if ch=#0 then ch:=readkey;

case ch of

Left: cur_ind(CurX, 3,-4,-l);

Right: cur_ind(CurX,11, 4, 1);

Up: cur_ind(CurY, 2,-2,-3);

Down: cur_ind(CurY, 6, 2, 3);

Enter: if a[Ind]=0 then begin

show(Ind,-2);

exit;

end

else write(tt7);

else write(#7); end;

gotoxy(CurX,Cury);

input; end; begin

clrscr;

window(x0,y0,x0+13,y0+7);

show(5,2);

{ }

input; { 1- }

for j:=1 to 9 do { }

if a[j]=-2 then

begin show(b[j],2);

break;

end;

m2: input; { }

step345; { }

goto m2;

end.

4.13.

, , .

1 ()

, m+n . .

, . , .

4_13.bas

DECLARE SUB MERGE (A%(),NA%,B%(),NB%,C%())

DEFINT A-Z

CLS

NA=3:

DIM A(NA)

DATA 0,2,4

FOR K=0 TO NA-1: READ A(K): PRINT A(K); : NEXT K: PRINT

NB=4

DIM B(NB)

DATA 1,3,5,7

FOR K=0 TO NB-1: READ B(K): PRINT B(K); : NEXT K: PRINT

DIM C(NA+NB)

MERGE A(),NA,B(),NB,C()

FOR K=0 TO NA+NB-1: PRINT C(K); : NEXT

END

SUB MERGE(A(),NA,(),NB,())

JA=0: JB=0

FOR JC=0 TO NA+NB-1

IF JA=NA THEN GOTO MB

IF JB=NB THEN GOTO MA

IF A(JA)<B(JB) THEN GOTO MA MB: C(JC)=B(JB): JB=JB+1: GOTO M1 MA: C(JC)=A(JA): JA=JA+1: Ml:

NEXT JC

END SUB

4_13.

#include <stdio.h>

#include <conio.h>

void merge(int *a,int ka,int *b,int kb,int *c);

main() {

#define na 3

#define nb 4

int j,a[na]={0,2,4},b[nb]={l,3,5,7},c[na+nb];

clrscr();

for(j=0; j<na; j++)

printf("%4d",a[j]);

printf("\n");

for(j=0; j<nb; j++)

printf("%4d",b[j]);

printf("\n");

merge(a,na,b,nb,c);

for(j=0; j<na+nb; j++)

printf("%4d",[j]);

getch(); }

void merge(int *a,int ka,int *b,int kb,int *c) {

int ja=0,jb=0,jc;

for(jc=0; jc<ka+kb; jc++) {

if (ja==ka) goto mb;

if (jb==kb) goto ma;

if (a[ja]<b[jb])goto ma;

mb:

c[jc]=b[jb];

jb++;

continue;

ma:

c[jc]=a[ja];

ja++;

} }

4_13.pas

program merge2;

uses Crt;

const

na=3 ;

nb=2 ;

a:array [0..na] of integer = (0,2,4,6);

b:array [0..nb] of integer = (1,3,5);

var

c:array [0..na+nb+l] of integer;

j:integer;

procedure merge(a,b:array of integer;var c:array of integer);

var

ja,jb,jc,na,nb,nc:integer;

label ma, mb;

begin

na:=High(a); ja:=0;

nb:=High(b);

jb:=0;

nc:=High(c);

if nc < na+nb+1 then begin

writeln(' ');

exit;

end;

for jc:=0 to na+nb+1 do begin

if ja > na then goto mb;

if jb > nb then goto ma;

if a[ja] < b[jb] then goto ma;

mb:

[jc]:=b[jb]; inc(jb);

continue;

ma:

[j ]:=a[j a];

inc(j a};

end;

end;

begin clrscr;

for j:=0 to na do

write(a[j]:4);

writeln;

for j:=0 to nb do

write(b[j]:4) ;

writeln; merge(a,b,c);

for j:=0 to na+nb+1 do

write(c[j]:4) ;

readln; end.

      . - 3GL   - 4GL   5GL  

, - , , .




 10.11.2021 - 12:37: - Personalias -> WHO IS WHO - - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:36: - Conscience -> . ? - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:36: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> ... - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:35: - Ecology -> - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:34: , - War, Politics and Science -> - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:34: , - War, Politics and Science -> . - _.
10.11.2021 - 12:34: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> , - _.
10.11.2021 - 09:18: - New Technologies -> , 5G- - _.
10.11.2021 - 09:18: - Ecology -> - _.
10.11.2021 - 09:16: - Ecology -> - _.
10.11.2021 - 09:15: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
10.11.2021 - 09:13: , , - Upbringing, Inlightening, Education -> - _.
Bourabai Research -  XXI Bourabai Research Institution