Copyright - Karim A. Khaidarov, May 31, 2005

:

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[. 90]

, [1-19], , [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26-29], , , .

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[32]

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[36] - - [37] . , , .

. . 1979 , . [38, 39].

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  1. -, , , . , , .
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  4. , - , , (. . [32]).

, [1].

, -. , , . [J] [N]. , , , . , , () . , .

, , . , - .

. , . , , , () . :

, , , pp- ( ) . , .

, , , , , , - [30, 31] [44, 45] - , , , .

2500 , , , , , . . , : , , , , , .

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1. , . ( , ), . . , , , , .

2. . , , . , [, , ] [, ], [], [].

3. , , . 1748, . 1847 [32], . 1870-1874 [46 - 54].

4. , 1899 [55, 56].

, , ,

= ~2.7∙10 63, lg = ~63.4

, ,

1/3 = ~1.4∙10 21, 1/3∙lg = ~21.1

. , 1/3.

= 1/k(hc3/ γ)1/2 = 1.4∙1032 K, h ,

T0 = 2,723 K 1/2.

. , , 1/8 = ~1.5∙105. , .

", , -, , ,

[30/31]

, . .

( ), , , , , - . , , .

, , . , , , .

.

  1. () rpa = - 1/3 = ~10 -56 [m], = (γh/c3)1/2 = 1.61∙10-35 [m] , , h ,
  2. : .
  3. . .
  4. , , , , , -, (), , . ( , )
  5. , , . , , .
  6. ( ) , . ( ) , r . , , . , r., , , . , , .
  7. r3 , , . = (hc5)1/2 = 1.956∙109 [J].

, [1-19] .

. , , , , . , , .

, , , (αμερ - ) , , .

, .

, . [6] . , , : R T0 = 2.723 K, ( )

p = kT/V = 2.12∙1081 [Pa],

k = 1.38∙10-23 [J/K] , [K] [J], ; T= To; V , .

, ( ) - , . p.

, To, 1/2 . .

1/2 , .

[6]. .

= c(Va / Vd)1/2= 1/2 c,

c , Va - , Vd .

() , , 30 . , , 360 30 [km/s]. , .

. [57], , , , . , .

, , ,

rd = 1/3 = ~2.25∙10 -14 [m] ; Vd = ;

- , . .

, , . . , . , , .

. , , , , To. , . , . , , .

, , . , , , .

, , , , , . , . , : , , ,, , , [82]. , , , .

, . : (, ) (), - .

, , (, ).

, . . .

, , ().

, , 1021 . , , ( ) . , , . , . , .

. , . , , , , ( ), .

. , , , , . 2004 [58] : , , , .

. , .

, - , , , , , 30 . , , . .

(, ) , . , , .

. , , , , . , , .

. . , .

5.01∙1070 [amer/kg].

. ( , , ) . , ( , - ) .

, , , .

 

()

~10113 [J/m3]

~1096 [kg/m3]

~3 1049 [J/m3]

~3 1032 [kg/m3]

~10-14 [J/m3]

~10-31 [kg/m3]

. (" ") , " " .

, , .

- . () . . , , [59]. , , .

, , . , , .

() , , .

, .

, [3, 8]. , , .

.

[3, 8, 9]. .

, (. 1.a). , () , . s = ½. , [3] Me = 1 + 1/861 1/861 2π ( α = 2π/861 = ~1/137). , , , (. 1.a). (~10-7m). , .

, . , .

, . , . , . - , (. [11]) . . .

E , F , q , p , s ;

. , , .

 

. 1. (a), (b) (c).

(1 ; 2 ;
3 ; M
e, Mp, Mn )

( ) (. . 1.b). , , . . . , , 2α = 58.48,

Mp = 1 + 2 * cos 29.24 = 2.79275

-

s = sq- + sq+ + sq+ = - ½ + ½ +½ = ½

, , , 1836,15 , . , , . ½ .

(. . 1.c) . , . . 1920 [60]. , .

, . , , .

. , , , , 1926 , [61]. 1933 . [62] , , β- .

, . , .

. , , ( ), . , .

Mp = 1 + 1 + 2 * cos 18.79 = 1.91348

-

s = seb + sq- + sq+ + sq+ = - 1 - ½ + ½ + ½ = - ½

: (½ ) , . , 2.7 ºK, . , .

, .

2 - . 7/2, 7 .

. , , , -, , , (, , , ). ( , ) (, ) β-.

, , . . - , .

. . ( ) : . . , ( ). , .

( ) , . , .

, . , [J] [N].

, , .

, :

:

  • ;
  • ,
  • ( ),

:

  • ,
  • () .

, ( , , ).

, . , , , . , ( ) , . , . .

. , , [19, 20] , , . , ?

.

1/3 , , () ~1021 . 2/3 = ~1042d (d = 1/118 1/1420 , ). , ~1040 . .

. , . , .

, (. . 2.a), , ( ), . . , , .

. , , .

, ~1/1420.866 .

1/1420.866 , , , . , .

. , , , , , .

, , () : , .

, (-: ) ()

= Ep / 1420.866 = 660 [KeV]

(1)

Ep .

(1) , , ()

= /re = 37.55 [N], [kg m/s2]

(2)

. , , ( , ).

, (2) , .

. .

= q2/(4πε0εre) = mec2 = 511 [KeV],

(3)

q ( , ); ε0ε ; re - ; me - () , c - .

( )

= / re = q2/(4πε0εre2)= 58.14 [N], [kg m/s2]

(4)

. , - . (4), .

( ). . , ( ). . , (, )

= Φ0 = L0 2/2 = Ep /1199.166 = 782.4 [KeV],

(5)

Φ0 = h/2q - ; L0 ; = .

, () . , , , , , .

, , . , .

, . Edec Ekin,

Edec = a + b + c - Ekin,

(6)

a, b, c ;

Ekin KeV . , , , ( ), . .

, . , 80 .

, 1820 , 1920 [60], .

[15], , , -, .

, , () , . , . , . -, .

, ̸ - [63].

, . , . , , . - ̸ , .

, .

. - , - .

(-21, , ) , . , . , [64-80]. , .

. , - (. .1.c). . ~1/1200 , , . mp , mn

mn = mp + mp/1199.166 +me = [1836,1516 (1 + 1/1199.166) + 1] me = 1838.6827 me

me .

, - , () . . , , (-, ) .

, , . 2

Edec= + (2-1) = 1,442 MeV,

Edec= + 2 = 2,225 MeV,

re + rp = 4.2210-15[m], .

, . [81].

, , (. . 2).

3 2

Edec= 3 + 5 + 2 = 6,918 MeV,

.

He3

Edec= 3 + 7 - = 6,937 MeV,

, .

He4 (-) , . () (. .3).

-, He4 , ,

Edec= + 51 = 26,721 MeV,

Edec= 6 + 1 + 43 = 26,716 MeV,

Edec= 4 + 4 + 41 = 26,721 MeV,

, , .

. 2. ( ).

, , :

  • -.
  • -, . , .
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, 31 2005 .

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